Evaluations of the Peroxidative Susceptibilities of Cod Liver Oils by a 1H NMR Analysis Strategy: Peroxidative Resistivity of a Natural Collagenous and Biogenic Amine-Rich Fermented Product

Abstract

High-resolution 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis was employed to molecularly screen the lipid, lipid oxidation product (LOP), and antioxidant compositions of four natural (unrefined) cod liver oil (CLO) products. Products 1–3 were non-fermented CLOs, whilst Product 4 was isolated from pre-fermented cod livers. Supporting analytical data that were acquired included biogenic amine, flavanone, tannin, phenolic antioxidant, α-tocopherol, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) determinations by recommended HPLC, LC/MS/MS, or spectrophotometric methods. SDS-PAGE, HPLC, and 1H NMR analyses investigated and determined collagenous antioxidants and their molecular mass ranges. 1H NMR analysis of aldehydic LOPs was employed to explore the susceptibilities/resistivities of each CLO product to peroxidation that is induced by thermal stressing episodes (TSEs) at 180°C, or following prolonged (42 day) storage episodes at 4 and 23 °C. Product 4 displayed extremely high ORAC values, which were much greater than those of Products 1–3, and that were predominantly ascribable to significant levels of peroxidation-blocking and/or aldehyde-consuming collagenous polypeptides/peptides and ammoniacal agents therein. Significantly lower levels of toxic aldehydes were generated in the pre-fermented Product 4 during exposure to TSEs, or the above long-term storage episodes. These results confirmed the enhanced peroxidative resistivity of a fermented, antioxidant-fortified natural CLO product over those of non-fermented unrefined products. Product 4: Green Pasture Blue Ice™ Fermented Cod Liver Oil.

Description

The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link. Open access article.

Keywords

cod liver oil, fermented foods, peroxidative susceptibility/resistivity, lipid oxidation products, aldehyde toxins, 1H NMR analysis, biogenic amines, antioxidants, flavanones, collagen-derived antioxidants, NMR-based Thermo-Oxidation Resistivity Assay (TORA)

Citation

Percival, B.C., Wann, A., Zbasnik, R., Schlegel, V., Edgar, M., Zhang, J., Ampem, G., Wilson, P., Le Gresley, A., Naughton, D., Grootveld, M. (2020) Evaluations of the Peroxidative Susceptibilities of Cod Liver Oils by a 1H NMR Analysis Strategy: Peroxidative Resistivity of a Natural Collagenous and Biogenic Amine-Rich Fermented Product. Nutrients , 12, 753.

Rights

Research Institute

Leicester Institute for Pharmaceutical Innovation - From Molecules to Practice (LIPI)