DORA (De Montfort Open Research Archive) is De Montfort University's research repository. It forms the primary public and institutional record of DMU research outputs. The breadth of research at DMU means that these outputs include articles, conference papers, books, book chapters, and other material available in a digital form. The record for each item contains descriptive information as well as, where possible, a version of the final research output. DORA also provides access to DMU PhD theses. This includes most PhD produced from 2009 onwards.


Recent Submissions

The Inculcation of Entrepreneurship into Tertiary Education: An Evaluation of the Impact of Policy Driven Entrepreneurship Education in Emerging Economies
(Routledge, 2024-06-03) Lockyer, Joan; Chukwuma-Nwuba, Kemi; Irene, Bridget; Basuki, Whysnianti
The success of small and medium-sized enterprises and the growth of a culture of entrepreneurship are seen as key factors in the growth strategies of many emerging economies. This has been achieved through mandating that entrepreneurship education be in the national education system. While the approach to which stages of education this applies varies from country to country, our focus here will be on tertiary education. The rationale for policy-driven entrepreneurship education is often premised on the need to inculcate the core skills, attributes, and behaviours expected of entrepreneurs, such that they become second nature to new graduates entering the marketplace. In the United Kingdom and parts of Europe, enterprise and entrepreneurship education are differentiated, the former being skills development, often linked to employability, and the latter being about new venture creation. However, not everyone exposed to entrepreneurship training will go on to start a new venture. Nevertheless, the mindset that comes with enterprise and entrepreneurship education aims to increase graduates’ understanding of the need to innovate; it provides a greater understanding of risk taking and greater resilience to overcome challenges. Both aim to move individuals from intention to action by enhancing their ability to spot, assess, and operationalise opportunities, with the overriding aim being to enhance general economic standing and properties. Graduate unemployment is a major challenge in many emerging economies and by encouraging graduates to create jobs as well as seek them it aims to address this issue as well. Because it is common practice in many emerging economies to conflate enterprise and entrepreneurship education under the banner of the latter, we will do so in this chapter. By inculcating entrepreneurship into the national psyche through education, the goal is to redress economic decline by enhancing entrepreneurial capacity. For many Western economies, entrepreneurship education has been encouraged for many years, but has remained a matter of choice. However, policy-driven entrepreneurship education provides a mechanism for those later to the concept, such as China, to catch up and even surpass other economies less keen to drive the mandate centrally. However, our experience of policy-driven entrepreneurship education suggests that the rhetoric and the reality are not always harmonious. Two of the main challenges are the quality of the provision of entrepreneurship education as mandated and the support for staff to upskill to deliver the mandated policy. In this chapter, we will explore the various rationales that underpin a policy-driven approach, the initiatives that support and enable it, and the outcomes. We will draw upon the extant literature on approaches to entrepreneurship education in a range of emerging economies and then focus specifically on Nigeria using data captured by one of the authors. As space is limited within this chapter, we will present only the qualitative data gathered that best support the wider research, followed by a conclusion and recommendations for the way forward.
ItemOpen Access
A social identity approach to understanding sustainability and environmental behaviours in South Africa
(2024-07-17) Irene, Julius; Daniels, Chux; Irene, Bridget; Kelly, Mary; Frank, R.
In recent years, change in behaviour towards the environment has gained prominence as a policy tool to influence positive environmental value. Simultaneously, the role played by social identity in promoting pro-environmental action is gaining recognition. Within this work, the intersection between collective group identity and environmental behaviour has received very little attention. Group norms are considered a strong predictor of pro-environmental behaviour, yet the influence of social identity and collective action on environmental action has not been adequately investigated in a multi-ethnic setting. Within this context, this study examines the affective component of social identity influence on pro-environmental action. More succinctly, this study demonstrates how outgroups and in-groups’ relations and broader sociocultural structures, values, interest, and norms impact environmental and sustainability transitions behaviours. Through interviews with participants across the four dominant social groups in South Africa, this study provides compelling evidence that country-wide expressions of social identity and ingroup dynamics shapes the individual behaviour regarding environmental and sustainability concerns and further strengthen the individual’s perspective for social environmental transformation. This study advances the need for a social-identity centred approach to foster pro-environmental and sustainability outcomes.
Exploring the role of regime actors in shaping the directionality of sustainability transitions in South Africa
(2023-04-04) Irene, Julius; Kelly, Mary; Irene, Bridget; Chukwuma-Nwuba, Kemi; Opute, Promise
This study explored the influence of regime actors to shape the directionality of sustainability transitions. Sustainability transitions are not only limited to system design and development but an interaction of incumbent actors and path-dependent mechanisms. Policymakers may develop a strategy to steer the application of sociotechnical innovation but are faced with directionality challenges if they are explicitly focused on linear transitions. We conducted face-to-face interviews with 26 policy and technical experts to explore this concept. We base the analysis of this study on the actor's perspective, vested values, and interest to provide a basis to inform the future of sustainability transitions in South Africa. The results of the study presented divergent transition patterns across the dominant actors, creating choices for alternative pathways. The study also found considerable ambivalence about shale gas development bordering on the suitability of shale energy to facilitate the South African energy transition. This study improved our understanding of how varied interests and values of actors can present significant challenges to sustainability transitions and shapes the prospect of sociotechnical innovations.
An Empirical Insight into the Factors Affecting the Oscillation of Women between Self and Paid Employment in South Africa
(Palgrave Macmillan, 2021-12-01) Irene, Bridget; Opute, Promise; Murithi, William
Discourse in entrepreneurship has highlighted the importance of understanding the entrepreneurial motivation of women. Although prior literature documents significant similarity in women motivations, there is limited understanding of what motivates South African women to oscillate between self-employment and paid employment. Therefore, this study aims to highlight these factors by exploring the career mobility perspective with expectancy, motivational and work–life balance perspectives. The study utilises the interpretive phenomenological approach (IPA) to understand the influencing factors of women’s oscillation from self- to paid employment in the South African socio-economic and cultural context. Sample was drawn from a population of women entrepreneurs in South Africa via interviews and focus group discussions. The results show that a major factor influencing women decision to engage in entrepreneurship is the need to achieve work–life balance. The inability to secure financial capital, gender bias, social and cultural norms are the most significant challenges women face in South Africa, thus leaving them with no option than to seek sustenance in paid employment while maintaining their businesses by the side.
ItemOpen Access
African Immigrant Entrepreneurship in the UK: The Hidden Hand of Family Influence on Entrepreneurial Orientation
(Harvard Deusto Business Research, 2021-04-26) Opute, Promise; Iwu, Chux Gervase; Khosa, Risimati Maurice; Eresia-Eke, Chukuakadibia; Hagos, Sirak Berhe; Irene, Bridget
The importance of ethnic minority businesses (EMBs) has been lauded in the entrepreneurship discourse. Building on entrepreneurial orientation theory, this study seeks to understand family influence on the entrepreneurial processes, practices, and decision-making activities in a relatively under-explored social group. The methodological approach in this study involved in-depth interviews with 10 entrepreneurs based in the United Kingdom. This study found strong social identity congruence behaviour of explored entrepreneurs from the point of how their entrepreneurial orientation is family-influence driven. For entrepreneurs, the family is a central behaviour factor that exerts significantly on their entrepreneurial processes and decision-making. As a result, actual judgement and decision-making of entrepreneurs may not necessarily be driven by economic logic but largely by family control factors that even exert more significantly on entrepreneurial behaviour. This study contributes to the psychological and family control perspectives on entrepreneurship discourse. This study has two core limitations: it is based on the qualitative approach and explores only one social group. Future research in the form of quantitative studies that also examine other cultural enclaves would therefore help to enhance the causes and effects conclusions suggested in this study.