A domestic operational rating for UK homes: Concept, formulation and application


A Domestic Operational Rating (DOR) scheme is presented for assessing the energy performance of occupied dwellings. The DOR is complementary to the method used to generate the asset rating of UK dwellings: the Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP). The DOR is transparent, easy to calculate, based on readily available information, producible from daily smart meter data, calculable for any period on a rolling year basis and applicable across all UK homes. The DOR method was developed using a new primary data set collected from 114 homes as part of the DEFACTO project. All were semi-detached, gas centrally heated, privately owned and internet connected properties, located in the English Midlands. The mean daily energy demands are analysed alongside information gathered through an energy survey and household questionnaires. These data are presented and analysed for the first time in this paper. The DOR method, which is described in full, generates metrics that indicate the absolute and relative energy demands, greenhouse gas emissions and energy costs of homes. The DOR ratings for the D114 homes were stable from year to year. Comparing the DOR with homes’ asset (SAP) ratings, indicates that the SAP rating poorly reflects the inter-home variation of households’ actual energy demand. For the D114 homes, it was possible produce a reduced data Domestic Operational Rating, rdDOR, using the energy demands measured on only a few cold days. Although developed in the UK context, the DOR is generally applicable to national, regional or local housing stocks in which daily energy demand is metered. Potential improvements to the DOR, and the need for trials using smart meter data from diverse homes and locations, are discussed.


open access article


domestic buildings, energy demand, operational rating, smart meter data, greenhouse gas emissions, energy costs


Lomas, K.J. et al. (2019) A domestic operational rating for UK homes: Concept, formulation and application. Energy and Buildings, 201, pp. 90-117


Research Institute

Institute of Energy and Sustainable Development (IESD)