Investigating the Effectiveness of PRAISE as a Parenting Support Coaching Intervention




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De Montfort University


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Peer reviewed


There are several well-established parenting interventions that are used in non-clinical groups and have shown improvements in child and parenting behaviour. These parenting interventions tend to be delivered in group formats and are not tailored to the parent-child dyad (Ogbu, 1981). Coaching has been described as an intervention that assists an individual to make changes by focusing unequivocally on that individual’s personal goals and objectives. Research has demonstrated that coaching is effective in several different fields and Palmer (2004) concluded that coaching should also be accepted into other fields. There is little research on coaching parents to change their parenting practices and this thesis introduces PRAISE which is a coaching model for parenting adapted to include self-efficacy and empathy as central elements. PRAISE is a solution-focused, cognitive-behavioural brief therapy coaching model and this thesis examines whether PRAISE is an effective parenting intervention.
PRAISE was tested in several ways in the thesis. Firstly, this research employed a quasi-experimental intervention design in which participants (parents of primary-school aged children aged 4- to 11-years old) self-allocated into one of two groups. One group received a coaching intervention using PRAISE (n=23) and the second group was a non-intervention group (n=35). Secondly, a follow-up analysis was conducted and thirdly, an in-depth case study was carried out with one of the participants who chose to take part in the coaching intervention group of the research study.
The variables measured to evaluate the effectiveness of PRAISE were parenting behaviours, parenting skills, parenting self-efficacy and the parent-child relationship, parental well-being and child behaviour. A set of four measures were completed by both groups. These were the Parenting Scale (Arnold, O’Leary, Wolff, & Acker, 1993), the Tool to Measure Parenting Self-Efficacy (Kendall & Bloomfield, 2005), the Adult Well-Being Scale (Snaith, Constantopolous, Jardine, & McGuffin, 1978) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (Goodman 1997), The measures were completed at three time points: Time 1 (baseline), Time 2 (after the coaching intervention or after ten-weeks for the non-intervention group), and Time 3 (six months after Time 2). Relative to baseline, there were improvements in parenting practices and well-being at 10 weeks (Time 2) in the coaching group and these were sustained at 6 months (Time 3). There were improvements in child behaviour at 6 months, but not immediately post-intervention. There were no improvements in the non-intervention group over the three timepoints. Many significant interactions were found between group and time at Time 2 and Time 3, some with large effect sizes. Evidence is provided to suggest that PRAISE is an effective coaching model for use as a parenting intervention. The findings are discussed in terms of psychological, parenting and coaching theory.





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