Application of Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Chromatography Techniques in the Anti-Doping Field


Anti-doping analysis requires an exceptional level of accuracy and precision given the stakes that are at play. Current methods rely on the application of chromatographic techniques linked with mass spectrometry to provide this. However, despite the effectiveness of these techniques in achieving good selectivity and specificity, some issues still exist. In order to reach the minimum required performance level as set by WADA, labs commonly use selective monitoring by quadrupole mass spectrometry. This can be potentially fooled through the use of masking agents or by moving the peaks, as often only a small portion of the spectrum is used for analysis. Further issues exist in the inability to detect new or modified compounds, or to reanalyse samples/spectra. One technique that could overcome these problems is that of comprehensive 2D chromatography. Here a second separation column is employed to generate greater separative power. Compared to conventional separation, GCxGC allows for a greater peak capacity (i.e., number of peaks that can be resolved within a given time) and greater separation of coeluting compounds, which makes the technique promising for the complex task required in anti-doping. When combined with Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry this technique demonstrates vast potential allowing for full mass range datasets to be obtained for retroactive analysis. Similarly, LCxLC provides improvements in resolving power compared to its 1D counterpart and can be used both online as part of the analysis or offline solely as a purification step. In this review we summarise the work in this field so far, how comprehensive chromatography has been applied to anti-doping studies, and discuss the future application for this technique.


The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.


Chromatography, Anti-doping


Hand, R., Bassindale, T., Turner, N.W. and Morgan, G (2021) Application of Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Chromatography Techniques in the Anti-Doping Field. Journal of Chromatography B, 1178, 122584


Research Institute

Leicester Institute for Pharmaceutical Innovation - From Molecules to Practice (LIPI)