Quality of Service in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks: Methodical Evaluation and Enhancements for ITS-G5




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De Montfort University


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Peer reviewed


After many formative years, the ad hoc wireless communication between vehicles has become a vehicular technology available in mass production cars in 2020. Vehicles form spontaneous Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs), which enable communication whenever vehicles are nearby without need for supportive infrastructure. In Europe, this communication is standardised comprehensively as Intelligent Transport Systems in the 5.9 GHz band (ITS-G5). This thesis centres around Quality of Service (QoS) in these VANETs based on ITS-G5 technology. Whilst only a few vehicles communicate, radio resources are plenty, and channel congestion is a minor issue. With progressing deployment, congestion control becomes crucial to preserve QoS by preventing high latencies or foiled information dissemination. The developed VANET simulation model, featuring an elaborated ITS-G5 protocol stack, allows investigation of QoS methodically. It also considers the characteristics of ITS-G5 radios such as the signal attenuation in vehicular environments and the capture effect by receivers. Backed by this simulation model, several enhancements for ITS-G5 are proposed to control congestion reliably and thus ensure QoS for its applications. Modifications at the GeoNetworking (GN) protocol prevent massive packet occurrences in a short time and hence congestion. Glow Forwarding is introduced as GN extension to distribute delay-tolerant information. The revised Decentralized Congestion Control (DCC) cross-layer supports low-latency transmission of event-triggered, periodic and relayed packets. DCC triggers periodic services and manages a shared duty cycle budget dedicated to packet forwarding for this purpose. Evaluation in large-scale networks reveals that this enhanced ITS-G5 system can reliably reduce the information age of periodically sent messages. The forwarding budget virtually eliminates the starvation of multi-hop packets and still avoids congestion caused by excessive forwarding. The presented enhancements thus pave the way to scale up VANETs for wide-spread deployment and future applications.





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