Development of a Manual Measurement Device for Measuring Hallux Valgus Angle in Patients with Hallux Valgus

Date

2022-07-26

Advisors

Journal Title

Journal ISSN

ISSN

Volume Title

Publisher

MDPI

Type

Article

Peer reviewed

Yes

Abstract

Background: Hallux valgus (HV) is one of the most common forefoot deformities, and its prevalence increases with age. HV has been associated with poor foot function, difficulty in fitting footwear and poor health-related quality of life. The aims of this study were to design and develop an easy-to-use measurement device for measuring hallux valgus angle (HVA) in patients with HV and to assess the measurement reliability of the newly designed measurement device. Methods: A manual measurement device for measuring HVA was designed and developed to test on patients with HV. Two measuring methods, i.e., test–retest and intra-observer measurements, were used to evaluate the repeatability and reliability of the newly designed measurement device. In the test–retest measurements, a total of 42 feet from 26 patients with HV were repeatedly measured by the same researcher using the manual measurement device every 3 weeks over a period of 12 months. The measurement reliability of the newly designed measurement device was analysed based on the collected HVA data. In the intra-observer measurements, a total of 22 feet from the same group of HV patients were measured by the same researcher using the manual measurement device and by a consultant using X-ray measurement for comparison. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to determine the correlation of measurements between the manual measurement device and X-ray measurement. Results: The mean of the difference between the two repeat measurements of HVA using the newly designed manual device was 0.62°, and the average of ICC was 0.995, which indicates excellent reliability. The ICC between X-ray and the average of twice-repeated manual measurements was 0.868, with 95% CI (0.649, 0.947) (p = 0.000). When the relationship in HVA between X-ray measurement and manual measurement using the new device was regressed as a linear relationship, the regression equation was y = 1.13x - 4.76 (R2 = 0.70). Conclusions: The newly designed measurement device is easy to use, with low-cost and excellent reliability for HVA measurement, with the potential for use in clinical practice.

Description

open access article

Keywords

Radiograph measurement, manual measurement, hallux valgus angular measurement, manual measurement device, reliability

Citation

Li, G., Shen, J., Smith, E., Patel, C. (2022) Development of a Manual Measurement Device for Measuring Hallux Valgus Angle in Patients with Hallux Valgus. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19 (15), 9108

Rights

Research Institute

Institute of Art and Design