Type-2 Fuzzy Logic: Circumventing the Defuzzification Bottleneck




Journal Title

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Volume Title


De Montfort University


Thesis or dissertation

Peer reviewed


Type-2 fuzzy inferencing for generalised, discretised type-2 fuzzy sets has been impeded by the computational complexity of the defuzzification stage of the fuzzy inferencing system. Indeed this stage is so complex computationally that it has come to be known as the defuzzification bottleneck. The computational complexity derives from the enormous number of embedded sets that have to be individually processed in order to effect defuzzification. Two new approaches to type-2 defuzzification are presented, the sampling method and the Greenfield-Chiclana Collapsing Defuzzifier. The sampling method and its variant, elite sampling, are techniques for the defuzzification of generalised type-2 fuzzy sets. In these methods a relatively small sample of the totality of embedded sets is randomly selected and processed. The small sample size drastically reduces the computational complexity of the defuzzification process, so that it may be speedily accomplished. The Greenfield-Chiclana Collapsing Defuzzifier relies upon the concept of the representative embedded set, which is an embedded set having the same defuzzified value as the type-2 fuzzy set that is to be defuzzified. By a process termed collapsing the type-2 fuzzy set is converted into a type-1 fuzzy set which, as an approximation to the representative embedded set, is known as the representative embedded set approximation. This type-1 fuzzy set is easily defuzzified to give the defuzzified value of the original type-2 fuzzy set. By this method the computational complexity of type-2 defuzzification is reduced enormously, since the representative embedded set approximation replaces the entire collection of embedded sets. The strategy was conceived as a generalised method, but so far only the interval version has been derived mathematically. The grid method of discretisation for type-2 fuzzy sets is also introduced in this thesis. Work on the defuzzification of type-2 fuzzy sets began around the turn of the millennium. Since that time a number of investigators have contributed methods in this area. These different approaches are surveyed, and the major methods implemented in code prior to their experimental evaluation. In these comparative experiments the grid method of defuzzification is employed. The experimental results show beyond doubt that the collapsing method performs the best of the interval alternatives. However, though the sampling method performs well experimentally, the results do not demonstrate it to be the best performing generalised technique.



Type-2 Fuzzy Set, Defuzzification, Type-Reduction, Sampling Method, Collapsing Defuzzifier



Research Institute

Institute of Artificial Intelligence (IAI)