Governance of Artificial Intelligence: Emerging international trends and policy frames




Journal Title

Journal ISSN


Volume Title


Chapman and Hall/CRC


Book chapter

Peer reviewed



In recent years, national governments, international organizations and stakeholders have launched numerous Artificial Intelligence (AI) strategies and reports. Recent research has mostly focused on AI ethics, while topics of AI policy and governance have received less attention. To address this research gap, this chapter addresses two main questions: what is driving fast-developing AI policies around the world and what are the main frames of emerging AI policies. To make sense of recent AI policy developments, this chapter draws on literature on emerging technologies, in particular on studies of performative function of hypes and expectations as well as of collaboration and competition dynamics in emerging fields. The analysis demonstrates that the fast-development of AI policy is largely driven, firstly, by a wide range of impacts of AI, and, secondly, by international assemblies such as the World Economic Forum and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development as well as by cross-national policy learning. However, AI policy developments are unevenly distributed around the world and are predominantly concentrated in the most developed regions. This chapter identifies three main AI policy frames: first, framing AI as revolutionary, transformative and disruptive technology; second, closely interconnected global competition and collaboration in the field of AI; and thirdly, a three-pillar approach of realising opportunities, mitigating risks and ensuring responsible AI. The chapter highlights that AI policy developments influenced by perceptions of hype, positive and negative expectations as well as global competition and collaboration can have not only positive but also problematic effects on resource allocation and political prioritization.


open access book


Artificial Intelligence, Public Policy, Governance


Ulnicane, I., W. Knight, T. Leach, B.C. Stahl and W.G. Wanjiku (2022) ‘Governance of Artificial Intelligence: Emerging international trends and policy frames’, in M.Tinnirello (Ed.) The Global Politics of Artificial Intelligence. CRC Press, pp.29-55.


Research Institute

Centre for Computing and Social Responsibility (CCSR)