Power-to-hydrogen and hydrogen-to-X: Which markets? Which economic potential? Answers from the literature


With the expansion of renewable energy’s contribution to the energy mix, balancing the electricity grid is becoming increasingly challenging. Alongside other solutions, Power-to-Hydrogen concepts are gaining significant interest. In this paper, the “Task 38”, initiated by the Hydrogen Implementing Agreement of the International EnergyAgency, presents the first of a two-step literature review regarding Power-to-Hydrogen and Hydrogen-to-X concepts with a focus on prospective market and economic potential. The study reveals a large scope of literature that shows a considerable variety ofsuggested implementation schemes. The transportation sector is identified as the most promising consumer market. Hydrogen-to-Gas pathways will require subsidies in order to be profitable. Hydrogen-to-Power becomes an economically promising option in the context of systems with high shares of renewables and a need for longer-term storages. Additionally, key enablers for Power-to-Hydrogen concepts are identified; namely support policies, concurrently with ongoing progress on the development and implementation of industry standard.


Research carried out within the framework of Task 38 of the Hydrogen Implementing Agreement of the International Energy Agency. The task is coordinated by the Institute for techno-economics of energy systems (I-tésé) of the CEA, supported by the ADEME. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.


Hydrogen in the Economy, Hydrogen-to-X, Power-to-Gas, Power-to-Hydrogen, Renewable Energy


Robinius, M., Welder, L., Ryberg, S., Mansilla, C., Albertin, E., Aupretre, F., Balan, N., Dickinson, R., Gammon, R., Ito, H., Kirkengen, M., Meeks, N., Ridell, B., Samsatli, S., Samsatli, N. J., Simon, J., Thomas, D., Valentin, S., Wehling, A., Weidner, E., Lucchese, P., Le Duigou, A. and Tlili, O., 2017. Power-to-Hydrogen and Hydrogen-to-X:which markets? Which economic potential? Answers from the literature. In: 14th International Conference on the European Energy Market 2017, 2017-06-06 - 2017-06-09.


Research Institute

Institute of Energy and Sustainable Development (IESD)