Chronic Non-Communicable Disease Risks Presented by Lipid Oxidation Products in Fried Foods




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AME Publishing Company



Peer reviewed



Exposure of UFA-containing culinary frying oils (CFOs), especially PUFA-rich ones, to high temperature frying episodes produces substantial, highly toxicologically-significant concentrations of reactive aldehydes, together with additional lipid oxidation products (LOPs), via a complex series of oxidative recycling bursts. Migration of thermally-stressed, peroxidised frying oils into foods during standard frying practices renders such LOP toxins available for human consumption, and concentrations of trans-2-alkenals, trans,trans-alka-2,4-dienals and n-alkanals present in potato chips obtained from fast-food retailers and further food outlets are all much greater than those of acrylamide and monochloropropanediol adducts detectable, for which a verisimilitude of high level public health concerns have been repeatedly stressed in the scientific literature available. In view of our observations, such LOPs are likely to play pivotal roles regarding the development, progression and incidence of wide range of human non-communicable diseases (NCDs), which undoubtedly will promote rising healthcare costs worldwide. Indeed, 30-35% of human cancers arising from environmental sources are attributable to diet alone, and it is therefore highly conceivable that dietary LOPs may impact significantly on this incidence level.

Hence, exacting efforts to limit the consumption of foods fried in CFOs with high LOP contents are required. Since CFOs rich in peroxidation-resistant MUFAs, and especially SFAs, produce lower and much lower levels of such LOP toxins during frying episodes respectively, they offer safer, health-friendly alternatives to those laden with PUFAs. However, the future consideration, establishment and ratification of currently-unavailable minimal human daily intakes for LOPs of known molecular identities also represent major demands for action. Consumer concerns regarding the nutritional and health properties of their foods strongly support such requirements.


open access journal


Dietary Lipid Oxidation Products (LOPs), Fried Food, Culinary Frying Oils, Aldehydes, Genotoxicity, Cytotoxicity


Grootveld, M., Percival, B.C., Grootveld, K. (2018) Chronic Non-Communicable Disease Risks Presented by Lipid Oxidation Products in Fried Foods. Hepatobiliary Surgery and Nutrition, 7 (4),


Research Institute

Leicester Institute for Pharmaceutical Innovation - From Molecules to Practice (LIPI)