First detection of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug flunixin in sheep’s wool.

Date

2011-05

Advisors

Journal Title

Journal ISSN

ISSN

Volume Title

Publisher

Elsevier

Type

Article

Peer reviewed

Yes

Abstract

Exposure to the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) diclofenac resulted in the near extinction of three species of Gyps vultures on the Indian subcontinent. Other NSAIDs present in the environment, including flunixin, may pose a similar risk. In the course of a study to determine the feasibility of detecting NSAIDs in keratinous matrices (i.e., hair, nails and feathers) using GC–MS, wool opportunistically collected from a sheep treated with flunixin was analysed for residues. Flunixin was detected qualitatively in external wool wash and extract samples. While residues of veterinary agents and pesticides have previously been found in sheep’s wool, our preliminary investigation provides the first instance of an NSAID being detected in this matrix. Here we provide the sample preparation methods and GC–MS parameters used to enable further refinement as part of ongoing conservation and consumer quality control measures.

Description

Research carried out with partners from Anglia Ruskin University and Working Dogs for Conservation

Keywords

Veterinary pharmaceutical, Wool contamination, Vulture conservation, Scavenging species, Conservation, Conservation, Wildlife Forensics

Citation

Richards, N.L., Hall, S., Scott, K.S. and Harrison, N.M. (2011) First detection of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug flunixin in sheep’s wool. Environmental Pollution, 159, pp. 1446-1450

Rights

Research Institute

Leicester Institute for Pharmaceutical Innovation - From Molecules to Practice (LIPI)