Adherence to cardiovascular pharmacotherapy by patients in Iraq: a mixed methods assessment using quantitative dried blood spot analysis and the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale

Date

2021-05-14

Advisors

Journal Title

Journal ISSN

ISSN

1932-6203

Volume Title

Publisher

Public Library of Science

Type

Article

Peer reviewed

Yes

Abstract

This study evaluated the adherence to prescribed cardiovascular therapy medications among cardiovascular disease patients attending clinics in Misan, Amara, Iraq. Mixed methods were used to assess medication adherence comprising the Arabic version of the eight-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) and determination of drug concentrations in patient dried blood spot (DBS) samples by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. Three hundred and three Iraqi patients (median age 53 years, 50.5% female) who had been taking one or more of the nine commonly prescribed cardiovascular medications (amlodipine, atenolol, atorvastatin, bisoprolol, diltiazem, lisinopril, losartan, simvastatin and valsartan) for at least six months were enrolled. For each patient MMAS-8 scores were determined alongside drug concentrations in their dried blood spot samples. Results from the standardized questionnaire showed that adherence was 81.8% in comparison with 50.8% obtained using the laboratory-based microsample analysis. The agreement between the indirect (MMAS-8) and direct (DBS analysis) assessment approaches to assessing medication adherence showed significantly poor agreement (kappa = 0.28, P=0.001). The indirect and direct assessment approaches showed no significant correlation between nonadherence to prescribed cardiovascular pharmacotherapy and age and gender, but were significantly associated with the number of medications in the patient’s treatment regimen (MMAS-8: Odds Ratio (OR) 1.947, 95% CI, P=0.001; DBS analysis: OR 2.164, 95% CI, P=0.001). The MMAS-8 results highlighted reasons for nonadherence to prescribed cardiovascular pharmacotherapy in this patient population whilst the objective DBS analysis approach gave valuable information about nonadherence to each medication in the patient’s treatment regimen. DBS sampling, due its minimally invasive nature, convenience and ease of transport is a useful alternative matrix to monitor adherence objectively in Iraq to cardiovascular pharmacotherapy. This information combined with MMAS-8 can provide clinicians with an evidence-based novel approach to implement intervention strategies to optimise and personalise cardiovascular pharmacotherapy in the Iraqi population and thereby improve patient health outcomes.

Description

open access article

Keywords

Adherence, dried blood spot, LC-HRMS, questionnaire

Citation

Alalaqi, A., Lawson, G., Obaid, Y., Tanna, S. (2021) Adherence to cardiovascular pharmacotherapy by patients in Iraq: A mixed methods assessment using quantitative dried blood spot analysis and the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. PLoS ONE 16 (5): e0251115

Rights

Research Institute

Leicester Institute for Pharmaceutical Innovation - From Molecules to Practice (LIPI)