A New Moving Peaks Benchmark with Attractors for Dynamic Evolutionary Algorithms


Prediction in evolutionary dynamic optimization (EDO), such as predicting the movement of optima, or when and how an environment will change, is a topic that is still under investigation and presents unsolved challenges. A few studies approach prediction based on re-initialising a population or requirement satisfaction problems such as Robust Optimization Over Time. The benchmark problems in these studies inherently use randomly changing parameters and therefore such randomness may make it difficult to compare these algorithms with other EDO approaches. In this paper, we introduce a new benchmark, called Moving Peaks Benchmark with Attractors, which incorporates an attractor heuristic that attracts peaks to a certain location in the environment into the moving peaks problem. The proposed benchmark is fully flexible where the dynamics of the attractors and the rate at which a peak is attracted to such attractors can be modified. By adjusting these characteristics, certain styles of movements can be achieved by a peak. We also introduce a new performance measure that focuses on the comparison of algorithms that use prediction. Seven EDO algorithms based on different working logics are chosen to give a wide representation of the state-of-the-art in this area. We argue that having predictable characteristics in the benchmark problem is more adequate for studying the performances and behaviours of those algorithms that embed prediction mechanisms. Experimental results obtained with the proposed benchmark show it's suitability for the EDO domain as all algorithms featuring prediction capabilities display higher accuracy than their competitors.


open access article


Benchmark, attractor, evolutionary dynamic optimization, evolutionary algorithm, performance metric


Fox, M., Yang, S. and Caraffini, F. (2022) A New Moving Peaks Benchmark with Attractors for Dynamic Evolutionary Algorithms, Swarm and Evolutionary Computation, 101125


Research Institute

Institute of Artificial Intelligence (IAI)