The Impact of Higher Order Pulse Amplitude Modulation and Transmission Performance over Twisted Pair Cable




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De Montfort University


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Peer reviewed


The digital age makes it possible to be globally networked at any time. Digital communication is therefore an important aspect of today’s world. Hence, the further development and expansion of this is becoming increasingly important. Even within a wireless system, copper channels are important as part of the overall network. Given the need to keep pushing at the current limitations, careful design of the cables in connection with an adapted coding of the bits is essential to transmit more and more data. One of the most popular and widespread cabling technologies is symmetrical copper cabling [1, pp. 8-15]. It is also known as Twisted Pair and it is of immense importance for the cabling of communication networks. At the time of writing this thesis, data rates of up to 10 GBit/s over a transmission distance of 100 m and 40 GBit/s over a transmission distance of 30 m are standardized for symmetrical copper cabling [2]. Other lengths are not standardized. Short lengths in particular are of great interest for copper cables, because copper cables are usually used for short distances, such as between computers and the campus network or within data centres. This work has focused on the transmission of higher order Pulse Amplitude Modulation and the associated transmission performance. The central research question is:“how well can we optimize the transmission technique in order to be able to maximise the data bandwidth over Ethernet cable and, given that remote powering is also a significant application of these cables, how much will the resulting heating affect this transmission and what can be done to mitigate that?” To answer this question, the cable parameters are first examined. A series of spectral measurements, such as Insertion Loss, Return Loss, Near End Crosstalk and Far End Crosstalk, provide information about the electromagnetic interference and the influence of the ohmic resistance on the signal. Based on these findings, the first theoretical statements and calculations can be made. In the next step, data transmissions over different transmission lengths are realized. The examination of the eye diagrams of the different transmission approaches ultimately provides information about the signal quality of the transmissions. An overview of the maximum transmission rate depending on the transmission distance shows the potential for different applications. Furthermore, the simultaneous transmission of energy and data is a significant advantage of copper. However, the resulting heat development has an influence on the data transmission. Therefore, the influence of the ambient temperature of cables is investigated in the last part and changes in the signal quality are clarified.





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