Stability of Human Coronavirus OC43 on Leather and Viral Transfer to Different Surfaces

Date

2022-06-20

Advisors

Journal Title

Journal ISSN

ISSN

DOI

Volume Title

Publisher

SfAM Early Career Scientist Research Symposium

Type

Conference

Peer reviewed

Yes

Abstract

Aims: This study aimed to investigate the stability of HCoV-OC43 on leather and transfer to other surfaces and to determine the antiviral activity of a silver-based leather coating.

Methods and Results: The infectivity of HCoV-OC43 (6.6 log10 TCID50) on patent, nubuck, full-grain calf and corrected grain leathers (untreated and silver-coated) was measured over 72 hours by titration on BHK-21 cells. Recovery from pig skin (8-9 log10 TCID50) was also assessed. Transfer of infectious HCoV-OC43 from leather onto cardboard and stainless steel (0-48 hours post-inoculation) was quantified. HCoV-OC43 remained infectious for 6-48 hours on patent, finished and calf leathers; no infectious HCoV-OC43 was recovered from nubuck at 0 hours. Silver coating of full-grain calf and corrected grain leathers significantly reduced HCoV-OC43 infectivity (p≤0.05) after 2 hours, where no infectious virus was recovered. Transfer of HCoV-OC43 (≤3.1-5.5 log10) was detected from calf, finished and patent leather onto stainless steel and carboard up to 2 hours after inoculation, while no transfer was detected for silver-coated leathers at 2 hours. Leather has also been utilised as a skin surrogate for investigating fomite transmission. HCoV-OC43 was reduced by 4.71 log10 on pig skin at 0 hours, in a similar trend to highly absorbent nubuck leather. Conclusions: Human coronaviruses remain infectious on leather for up to 48 hours and transfer onto cardboard and stainless steel up to 2 hours post-inoculation. Absorbency contributes to the recovery/persistence of HCoV-OC43 on surfaces. A silver-based leather coating demonstrated antiviral activity and limited viral transfer onto other surfaces.

Significance of Study: This investigation suggests that leather could pose a risk of indirect transmission of human coronaviruses; this is of significance for settings where there is close contact with leathers such as in manufacturing, retail and domestic environments. A silver-based leather coating demonstrated antiviral activity and limited viral transfer onto other surfaces, reducing the potential for indirect transmission from leathers.

Description

Keywords

Leather, Human coronavirus OC43, TCID50, pig skin, transfer, fomite

Citation

Shivkumar, M., Adkin, P., Owen, L., Patel, J., Shantharamu, U., Goodyer, L. and Laird, K. (2022) Stability of Human Coronavirus OC43 on Leather and Viral Transfer to Different Surfaces. SfAM Early Career Scientist Research Symposium, Cardiff, 20th June 2022.

Rights

Research Institute

Leicester Institute for Pharmaceutical Innovation - From Molecules to Practice (LIPI)