Banks and Economic Growth: The General Theory in a Basic Disequilibrium Model with Five Rationing Regimes




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Review of Business and Economics Studies



Peer reviewed



In this paper, an inductive research methodology and the principle of parsimony are applied to reconsider a central issue in economics and macro-finance, namely the determinants of economic growth and the role of the financial sector. A simple framework is derived, characterised by information imperfections and the absence of market clearing. The literature on rationing has identified the need to consider differing rationing regimes but has not included a banking sector. Such a set-up is presented in this paper, which identifies the link between credit and economic growth under differing rationing regimes, with varying consequences for inflation. The familiar case of money creation resulting in inflation features as a special case within the general framework. Others are the possibility of asset price bubbles and collapses, non-inflationary growth despite full employment, and instability in banking systems. The model is consistent with empirical evidence that has been difficult to reconcile with conventional equilibrium models. It is found that within this simple rationing framework, banks, left to their own devices, do not necessarily deliver stable, non-inflationary growth, and there is no reason to expect their behaviour to optimise social welfare. Some implications for research and policy are discussed.


open access article


banking, credit, development, growth, equation of exchange, finance and growth, growth accounting, quantity equation


Werner, Richard A. (2021) Banks and Economic Growth: The General Theory in a Basic Disequilibrium Model with Five Rationing Regimes. Review of Business and Economics Studies. 9 (4), pp. 9-22


Research Institute

Centre for Research in Accountability, Governance and Sustainability (CRAGS)