Artemisinin Cocrystals for Bioavailability Enhancement. Part 1: Formulation Design and Role of the Polymeric Excipient
Artemisinin (ART) is a most promising antimalarial agent, which is both effective and well-tolerated in patients, though it has therapeutic limitations due to its low solubility, bioavailability and short half-life. The objective of this work was to explore the possibility of formulating ART cocrystals, i.e., artemisinin-orcinol (ART-ORC) and artemisinin-resorcinol (ART2-RES) as oral dosage forms to deliver ART molecules for bioavailability enhancement. This is the first part of the study, aiming to develop a simple and effective formulation which can then be tested on an appropriate animal model (i.e. mouse selected for in vivo study) to evaluate their preclinical pharmacokinetics for further development. In the current work, the physicochemical properties (i.e., solubility and dissolution rate) of ART cocrystals were measured to collect information necessary for the formulation development strategy. It was found that the ART solubility can be increased significantly by its cocrystals, i.e., 26-fold by ART-ORC and 21-fold by ART2-RES respectively. Screening a set of polymers widely used in pharmaceutical products, including Polyvinylpyrrolidone, Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose and Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose Acetate Succinate, based on the powder dissolution performance parameter analysis, revealed that Polyvinylpyrrolidone/vinyl Acetate (PVP-VA) was the most effective crystallisation inhibitor. The optimal concentration of PVP-VA at 0.05 mg/mL for the formulation was then determined by a dissolution/permeability method which represented a simplified permeation model to simultaneously evaluate the effects of a crystallization inhibitor on the dissolution and permeation performance of ART cocrystals. Furthermore, experiments, including surface dissolution of single ART cocrystals monitored by Raman spectroscopy and SEM and diffusion properties of ART in solution measured by 1H and diffusion-ordered spectroscopy (DOSY) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, provided insight into how the excipient affects the ART cocrystal dissolution performance and bioavailability.
The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
Citation : Kaur, M., Yardley, V., Wang, K., Masania, J., Botana, A., Arroo, R.R.J., Li, M. (2021) Artemisinin Cocrystals for Bioavailability Enhancement. Part 1: Formulation Design and Role of the Polymeric Excipient. Molecular Pharmaceutics,
ISSN : 1543-8384
Research Institute : Leicester Institute for Pharmaceutical Innovation - From Molecules to Practice (LIPI)
Peer Reviewed : Yes
- Leicester School of Pharmacy