Functions of Code-switching in EFL Classrooms with Native and Non-native Speaker Teachers: A Qualitative Study in A Turkish University
This study aimed to find out how code switching functions in EFL classes with native (NS) and non-native speaker (NNS) teachers by using classroom observation and interview methods. To reach this aim 162 B-level students and 8 teachers were observed for 16 audio- recorded classroom hours in the School of Foreign Languages Department of a private university. In addition, semi-structured interviews were carried out with all of the 8 teachers who participated in the research and 37 students in groups of 4 to 7 from each of the observed classes. NVivo technique was employed to categorise and store the data. The seven functions (themes) which emerged from the utterances made during the interviews and the classroom talks were; ‘motivating, activating and drawing attention’, ‘comprehending’, ‘feeling free while expressing meaning’, ‘cultural orientation’, ‘naturality’, ‘negotiation’, and ‘feeling secure and relaxed’. Results indicated that there were not many noteworthy differences between the functions of code switching used by NS and NNS teachers. Both the NS and NNS teachers switched to the students’ first language for purposes such as helping them comprehend, feel secure and relaxed, motivating and activating them, drawing their attention, and for orienting to their culture. On the other hand, the students’ switching to L1 served comprehending, feeling free while expressing meaning, getting motivated and activated, feeling secure and relaxed, cultural orientation, naturality and negotiating with the teacher. Both NS and NNS teachers let the students switch to L1 but their second turns following the students’ first turns in L1 were observed to be always in L2. It was concluded that students’ switching to L1 for functions such as naturality and negotiating which occurred both in the NNS and NS teachers’ classes might involve some kind of resistance to using a foreign language, thereby hindering target language learning, whereas other functions of code switching might promote it.
- MPhil