Characterisation of Actions of p-menthane-3,8 diol (PMD) Repellent Formulations against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes
Background Characterisation of mosquito repellents using arm-in-cage tests are performed by assessing the ED95, half-life and complete protection times (CPT). This study fully characterises p-menthane-3,8 diol PMD which has not been widely studied, and a long-acting formulation containing a PMD-vanillin composite. Method A series of arm in cage tests against Aedes aegypti aegypti (Dipera-Culicidae) strain mosquitoes were devised using 6 volunteers to estimate CPT or 10 to estimate the effective dose (ED95) and half-life for three repellents: 20% DEET, 30% PMD and a novel 30% PMD-vanillin formulation. Non-linear Regression analysis was used to characterise the relationship between applied dose and CPT. were also estimated Results PMD and DEET showed a very similar log dose relationship to CPT; however, the PMD-vanillin formulation exhibited a sigmoidal ‘S-shape’ relationship. This resulted in a 1.5 times higher CPT for PMD-vanillin compared to that of 20% DEET when applied at a dose of 1.6mg/cm2, but little difference at lower doses of 0.8-1mg/cm2. The ED95 value for the 30% PMD and PMD-vanillin formulations were 0.25 and 0.24 mg/cm2 respectively, these being higher than that for 20% DEET (0.09 mg/cm2). The half-lives for 30% PMD and 20% DEET were similar (2.23 vs. 2.74 hrs.), but longer for the PMD-vanillin formulations (3.8 hrs.). Conclusion Such a full characterisation for other repellent formulations, particularly those claiming extended longevity, should be conducted in order to identify differences at various applied doses.
The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
Citation : Goodyer, I.L., Grootveld, M., Deobhankar, K., Debboun, M., Philip, M. (2020) Characterisation of Actions of p-menthane-3,8 diol (PMD) Repellent Formulations against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Transactions of The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene,
Research Institute : Leicester Institute for Pharmaceutical Innovation - From Molecules to Practice (LIPI)
Peer Reviewed : Yes
- Leicester School of Pharmacy