Trust, Security and Perceived Risk Models for Designing Internet Banking
This research assesses the behaviour patterns of existing bank customers towards Internet banking service in the UK (non-adopters and adopters), and their continuing usage or abandonment of service. The study also develops a theoretical model for trust, risks and Internet banking security, to achieve safety in the area of Internet banking services. Specifically, the majority of existing studies neglect patterns of post-adoption (continued use and abandonment of use) of Internet banking; focusing instead on either adoption or acceptance of internet banking (pre-adoption). The research in this thesis responds to this gap in the existing literature, offering a reassessment of the authentic use of Internet banking services in the UK. It does so by exploring the influence of trust, perceived risk, and security concerns, on customers’ behaviour and intention to use or not use Internet banking services. To address the study aims, it first develops conceptual frameworks. These encompass trust, security and perceived risk factors, and identification, and determine what influences consumers in their non-adoption, adoption, continued use, or abandonment of Internet banking. The study investigates customers located in Leicester city, and applies a quantitative research design, using a survey as the primary means of data collection. There were eight hundred and thirty eight valid copies (838) of the questionnaire, comprising a sample of 503 Internet banking users, 291 non-users of Internet banking and 44 abandoners of Internet banking. III A combination of simple regressions, correlation coefficients and frequencies (Categorical Variables), was used to analyse the data, by subjecting it to statistical analysis software SPSS. Initial statistical results displayed that 34.7% of the study sample were non-users of Internet banking, with Internet banking services abandonees being a minority. They represented just 5.30%, i.e. 44 customers from an overall study sample of 838. For them, trust, security and perceived risk were significant influences. Similarly, in adoption and continuity models, 60% of active users mentioned that trust has a low effect on their intentions for Internet banking adoption, while security and perceived risk had a very low influence on service adoption. On the other hand, the findings demonstrated that one-third of the users sampled mentioned other Internet banking adoption factors besides trust, namely: convenience, ease of use, saving time, ease of access, good monitoring and control of accounts, and speed when performing transactions. With regard to the continuity of usage, 87% of service users agree, or strongly agreed, about their future intentions regarding continuity. Reasons for continued use of Internet banking were trust, security and perceived risk. Additionally statistical analysis found weak relationships between perceived intentions and three factors. Further, the findings also highlighted that the relationships between demographic characteristics and customers’ trust, security and perceived risk were weak in three areas (Non-users, Abandoners and Users). One of the main contributions of this study is the development of a safety area model for Internet banking usage. The safety aspects identified were trust, security and low-risk degree between 53%, 51% and 9%, according to customers’ recommendations. IV This model will serve as a basis for future studies, to determine safety area in which to exercise Internet banking. However, the usefulness of this may vary from one environment to another and by time. Overall, the research contributes to knowledge and understanding of Internet banking patterns during two phases: pre-adoption and post-adoption of services (non-adoption, abandonment, adoption and continuity of use).Moreover, the research findings and insights will help bank executives, developers, academics, managers, and stakeholders, to formulate strategies and service frameworks to induce clients to accept services. Furthermore, maximising productivity and profitability through the creation of sustainable relationships in the long term with users will improve their satisfaction and retention. Bank administrators and decision makers should take advantage of the safety area model, and consider the views and recommendations of customers.
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