Bioproduction of Anticancer Podophyllotoxin and Related Aryltretralin-Lignans in Hairy Root Cultures of Linum Flavum L.
Podophyllotoxin (PPT) is the unique natural precursor of Etoposide, a topoisomerase II inhibitor drug, used in more than a dozen anticancer chemotherapy treatments. Etoposide is appearing on the list of essential medicines of the World Health Organization. PPT is still exclusively extracted from the rhizome of Podophyllum species, its main natural source. The supply of Podophyllum hexandrum plants is limited, since the occurrence of these plant species is scarce, collection is destructive, and the plants need a long regeneration period. As a consequence, this species is now endangered and listed on Appendix II of the Convention on International Trading of Endangered Species. Chemical synthesis of PPT is difficult due to the presence of four contiguous chiral centers and the presence of a base sensitive trans-lactone moiety. Alternatives are being actively searched, but so far, no wild plants have been described with similar PPT production capacity as compared to Podophyllum. However, several plants producing PPT or other related aryltetralin lignans (ATL) have been identified in recent decades, including the Linaceae. Given its high lignan accumulation capacity, Linum flavum is considered a promising alternative source of PPT and other related ATL. However, unlike the common flax L. usitatissimum, L. flavum has a low agricultural potential (e.g., slow growth and dehiscence of fruits). Therefore, in vitro cultures of plant cells and/or tissues provide an interesting alternative to whole L. flavum plants for the production of these valuable ATL. In particular, L. flavum hairy roots (HRs) accumulate high levels of ATL and it is also possible to further increase this ATL accumulation by the selection of the best genotype, optimization of cultures media and conditions and choice of carbon sources, use of plant growth regulators, elicitor treatments, or precursors’ addition. To date, the ATL accumulation levels can still be perceived insufficient for L. flavum HRs before being used as a commercially viable biotechnological production system. To reach this goal, a better knowledge of the mechanisms that regulate the metabolic flux of intermediates in the different branches of the ATL metabolic pathway will be an important prerequisite to direct the biosynthesis toward the production of a high amount of the desired PPT. In the future, metabolic engineering aiming at constructing the PPT pathway in a heterologous host is very appealing, but for that approach in-depth knowledge of the biosynthetic pathway toward PPT and other related ATL is necessary.
Citation : Mikac, S., Markulin, L., Drouet, S., Corbin, C.,Tungmunnithum, D., Kiani, R., Kabra, A., Abassi, B.H., Renouard, S., Bhambra, A.S., Lainé, E., Arroo, R. R. J., Fuss, E., Hano, C. (2020) Bioproduction of Anticancer Podophyllotoxin and Related Aryltretralin-Lignans in Hairy Root Cultures of Linum Flavum L.. In: Ramawat, K., Ekiert, H., Goyal S. (Eds.) Plant Cell and Tissue Differentiation and Secondary Metabolites. Cham: Springer.
ISBN : 9783030112530
Research Institute : Leicester Institute for Pharmaceutical Innovation - From Molecules to Practice (LIPI)
Peer Reviewed : Yes
- Leicester School of Pharmacy