An investigation of nanoscale materials and their incorporation in patch antenna for high frequency applications
The rapid development in the polymer-based electronic contribute a strong determination for using these materials as substitute to the high-cost materials commonly used as medium substrate in the fabrication of Microstrip Patch Antenna (MPA). Antenna technology can strongly gain from the utilisation of low-cost, flexible, light weight with suitable fabrication techniques. The uniqueness of this work is the use of variety of common but unexplored different polymer materials such as Polyethylene (PE), Polypropylene (PP), Polyvinyl chloride, (PVC) Polystyrene (PS), Polystyrene fibre (PSF) as the substrates for the design and fabrication of different MPAs for communication and sensing applications in millimetre wave (MMW)region. Electrospinning (ES) technique is used to reconstruct PS and produced PSF material of low dielectric constant. A co-solvent vehicle(comprising 50:50 ratio) of Dichloromethane (DCM) and acetone was utilised with processing condition of solution infusion flow-rate of 60μL/min and an applied voltage of 12± kV yielded rigid PSF substrates. The PSF Produced has complex permittivity of 1.36±5% and a loss tangent of 2.4E-04±4.8E-04 which was measured using Spilt-Post Dielectric Resonators (SPDR) technique at National Physics Laboratory, Teddington, London. A diamond-shaped MPAs on RT Duriod material were simulated and fabricated using photo-lithography for different inner lengths to work in the frequencies range from (1-10 GHz). The resonant frequency is approximated as a function of inner length L1 in the form of a polynomial equation. The fabricated diamond-shaped MPA more compact (physical geometry) as compared with a traditional monopole antenna. This MPAs experimentally measured and have a good agreement with the simulated results. The coplanar waveguide (CPW) diamond-shaped MPA working in the MMW region was designed and fabricated with polymer materials as substrates using thermal evaporation technique and the RF measurement was carried out using Vector Network Analyser (VNA). The resonant frequencies of the CPW diamond shaped MPAs for (PE, PP, PVC, PS and PSF) were found to be 67.5 GHz, 72.36 GHz, 62.41 GHz, 63.25 GHz and 80.58 GHz, respectively. The antenna fabricated on PSF were resonating at higher frequency when compared to the other polymers materials. In adding an air-bridge to the CPW diamond-shaped MPA the resonating frequency increased from ≈55 GHz to≈ 62 GHz. Three different shaped nano-patch antennas (Diamond shaped, diamond shaped array and T-shaped) have been designed, simulated and fabricated on Silicon substrate with DLC deposition using focused Ion Beam (FIB) technique, these antennas were found to resonate at 1.42 THz with (-19 dB return loss), 2.42 THz with (-14 dB return loss) and 1.3 THz with (-45 dB return loss) respectively.
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