Item Open AccessDiscipline and Morale: The British Non-Commissioned Officer on the Western Front 1914-1918(De Montfort University, 2003-07) Penny, StephenThe purpose of this study is, in part, to examine the vital part played by the British NCO in the maintenance of discipline on the Western Front in World War One. But its chief aim is to shed light on the largely neglected, but equally vital, contribution made by the British NCO to the upkeep of morale; not just the morale of the private soldier, but also that of the officer. In recognising that the British NCO had a more complex role to perform than has been hitherto acknowledged, it is hoped that this will in some small way serve to challenge the stereotype of the NCO which has endured for so long. Item Open AccessAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Support in a Community Rehabilitation Company(De Montfort University, 2022) Wood, JaneAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is now recognised as having a lifelong impact involving challenges of high impulsivity, low hyperactivity, low attention, poor organisational and poor communicational skills. The social constructivism paradigm from which the research was undertaken encompasses the philosophical gap between medical and social models, the two perspectives can complement each other. Not only is there a gap in the literature in probation practice and disability specifically ADHD, but also the assimilation of the social and medical models into an holistic model creates a structure from which to look at the inclusion of disability in probation practice and beyond. The coproduction of data generated from both the CRC staff and the service users considered in the light of a non-reductive holistic model, opens up the prospect of a new contribution to probation practice. The Transforming Rehabilitation Programme saw the creation of Community Rehabilitation Companies (CRC), who work with low to medium risk service users. This offered a novel backdrop from which to explore how young adults with ADHD are supported whilst carrying out their court orders. A small-scale qualitative research study was conducted in a CRC, to understand what support and perceptions of ADHD was held by CRC staff and service users with ADHD. One-to-one semi- structured interviews were carried out with thirteen CRC staff and six service users aged 18 to 25years. Understanding of ADHD by the CRC staff was generally poor with little insight to how ADHD might impact on probation work, but there was some good practice highlighted. The probation services have been undergoing a reunification process which creates a timely opportunity to proffer recommendations for improved policy to standardised training for probation staff. Early identification of ADHD service users allows for adaption of probation work on a one-to-one basis promoting a positive rehabilitative relationship and adhering to statutory responsibilities for the adjustment of working practices. Item Open AccessSOUNDING FUTURES: INCREASING ENGAGEMENT AND ACCESSIBILITY IN SOUND-BASED MUSIC EDUCATION(De Montfort University, 2021-03) Richardson, JackThis research was a pedagogical initiative that sought to find ways to better support the implementation of sound-based music education (SbME) for students in Key Stage 2 (aged seven-to-eleven). It did this by developing two prototypes to support teaching and learning in the sound-based classroom. These were developed as a result of coding and content analysis conducted with five case studies, within which fifteen lessons were conducted and thirty students participated. These resources identified and supported the skills and areas of knowledge required for students to be able to meaningfully access and engage with sound-based music (SbM) within a short timeframe of three lessons. SbM is defined by Landy (2007) as music where sound, rather than the musical note, is the main unit. An action research methodology was combined with a case study approach in order to develop teaching resources iteratively, following an ‘action research spiral’ (Zuber-Skerritt, 2001). Qualitative data was collected via naturalistic observations and group interviewing embedded within the lessons that were delivered by the researcher. From this, coding and content analysis was used systematically to identify a series of competencies that were developed into the prototype Sound-based Music Educational Competencies Toolkit (SbM ECT). The analysis of student creative work then led to the formation of the Composer Profile Framework (CPF), another prototype aimed at educators in understanding students’ compositional approaches when relating to SbM. Item Open AccessSolving XOR and Pole-balancing problems using a multi-population NEAT(De Montfort University, 2020-12) Lawrence, WilliamThis work looks at the use of multi-population utilisation for Neuroevolution in evolving controllers for the XOR and pole balancing problems. The single population is split into a number of smaller populations with a lower fitness thresholds the fittest individuals from each sub-population are then seeded into the final population with a higher fitness threshold. The results so far are inconclusive that a number of smaller populations are more efficient than a single large population. Different results were compared by using the total number of generations multiplied by the population to give an approximate metric of resources required to solve the problems using different methods. Small populations of around 5–10 individuals showed comparable results in resources required to reach desired level of fitness. There are a large number of parameters to consider when designing with Neuroevolution, multi-populations increase these factors by a considerable magnitude. It may be that further changing of parameters may yield better results. Future work using novelty search may suit multi-population applications better allowing a greater coverage of the search space. Item Open AccessSerious Games for Cyber Security - A New General Design Framework(De Montfort University, 2021-01) Le Compte, AlexisIn a context where cyber strategies developed by nations across the world are looking for more innovative ways of raising the awareness of the general population, serious games appear to be a promising solution to the task. However, only a small portion of serious games in this field are designed with this goal in mind and several studies on the pedagogical effectiveness of serious games highlight a large proportion of simulation based games. Considering the potential virtues of serious games and games in general, the aforementioned observations raise questions about the design process of serious games and over representation of simulation based serious games. To this end, this thesis explores the design of serious games and proposes a framework to help building serious games of all types of genres, not specifically simulation based games. This proposed framework specifically emphasises the relationship between learning objectives and game mechanics, providing a way to combine them in a suitable manner depending on the overall pedagogic goal, or game being created. An experimental protocol is described, discussed and refinements for new experiments are presented. Nevertheless, the proposed framework represent a foundation piece for future work; in particular it constitutes an important part of a larger solution to evaluate the effectiveness and perceived quality of serious games. Item Open AccessThe Representative Relationship of Local Government Councillors’ to the European Union(De Montfort University, 2020-10) Saltis, CatherineThe creation of a policy-making body, with legal powers to override the decisions of the member states, has profound implications for local politics. The thesis explores how a group of councillors in England have responded to and relate to the impact of the European Union on local government in order to enhance their and their councils influence in European wide policy development towards local government. The importance and power of the EU and the implications of its influence on local government and the councillor is a significant issue for local democracy. Regions and local authorities and the councillors within them have an important role to play in the European policy-making system. The thesis explores how and to what effect councillors are creating or utilising opportunities to engage with EU activity. The thesis addresses the question of how councillors view their role in relation to the EU and contributes towards the current knowledge of councillor role theory. The thesis provides an examination of those councillors who actively engage in EU affairs and of what that small elite group of local actors that engage in European affairs seek to achieve. Those councillors that are actively engaged with the EU are reshaping their roles and are outward facing, looking for opportunities to enhance their and their councils influence with policy decision makers at EU level. The study explores the implications, for their representative role, for those councillors who do not engage with EU activity and considers how they might if possible and to what extent, be involved. The thesis provides deep and rich research material illustrating for the first time how the various influences on councillors with regard to their level of involvement with the EU determines their role and behaviour and subsequently their decision to engage or not at differing levels with EU activity. The findings show that councillors adopt one of four approaches towards the EU each of which, in different ways, have implications for their role as the elected representative of their communities. Item Open AccessExploring the Concept of Clinical Instructors’ Credibility from the “Triad of Perceptions” of Nurse Lecturers, Clinical Instructors and Students at Hawler Medical University(De Montfort University, 2020-01) Rasul, Srwa RostamLately, there has been increasing attention in the research studies about clinical instructors’ role, such as clinical instructors’ effectiveness, but not competence and credibility. Source Credibility Theory (Hovland, Janis, and Kelley, 1953) suggests that teachers’ power of persuasion, and consequently, effectiveness is amplified when students view them as credible. The literature on clinical instructors’ effectiveness is bereft of studies on clinical instructors’ credibility. This is particularly surprising considering that clinical instructors play an important role for professional nursing education (Tanda and Denham, 2009). Through a social constructivist lens, this thesis seeks to address the gap in current knowledge, providing a detailed understanding of the concept of clinical credibility by exploring the "perception between students, clinical instructors and lecturers. This is referred to as the triad of perception. Thirty-one participants (10 lecturers, 11 clinical instructors and 10 students) were selected from Hawler Medical University to take part in this qualitative study that apply phenomenological constructivist principles. Data were analysed inductively using template analysis (King, 2004) to identify commonalities and themes. The findings revealed that clinical instructors should possess specific “personal qualities”, “clinical teaching qualities” and “nursing competence” to make them credible clinical instructors. More importantly, findings indicated that there was a meaningful difference in priority and emphasis on sun-themes; therefore, these results provide strong evidence that certain readily identified dimensions are most important for all the triad groups. The adoption of a social constructivist approach allowed this thesis to achieve evidence via examining multiple realities among social actors that provide a more holistic picture for the concept. Exploring the ‘clinical credibility’ concept in this way not only provided opportunities for future research and practice but also contributed to the development of overall knowledge. triad’s valuable insight about clinical instructors’ credibility have implications for both in-service clinical instructors and programs leaders concerned with teacher effectiveness, and subsequently, student learning. Finally, this thesis contributes to the development of social constructivist research in the fields of nurse education, by providing an example of how a triad of perceptions can be integrated to investigate a research question. Item Open AccessHow a structured exercise programme involving cardio and resistance exercise affects type 2 diabetes mellitus volunteers(De Montfort University, 2019-07) Hill, AshleyBackground T2DM is a metabolic disorder that is rapidly increasing in prevalence, it has become a 21st century epidemic and addressing this is one of the greatest global health challenges of our time. In the UK £10.3 billion or 10% of the NHS budget was spent on diabetes mellitus. It is essential that a prevention approach to T2DM is utilised within the NHS. Aims The aims of this study are to compare physiological, metabolic parameters and inflammatory markers from type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and non-diabetic (ND) volunteers over a 6-week exercise period. Methods This was a very interesting study where T2DM and ND volunteers completed one of three structured exercise programmes involving either a combination of cardio and resistance exercise, cardio exercise or resistance exercise twice a week for 6-weeks. Various parameters were recorded at baseline to compare with results after 1 exercise session and again after 12 exercise sessions. Key findings Oral glucose tolerance test area under the curve results showed noticeable reductions from 1612.40 to 1354.10 mmol/L*min. Weight reduced by 2.58 kg in the T2 combination group after intervention which showed a statistically significant reduction from before to after intervention with a p-value of 0.049. Time to peak reduced in the T2 resistance group from 80 to 47 minutes. Total cholesterol reduced in the T2 resistance group after intervention from 5.34 to 4.68 mmol/L. Inflammatory marker results are also presented at the end of the results chapter. Item Open AccessUnearthing the Self: Performative and Theological Explorations Towards a Discovered Identity(De Montfort University, 2019-10) Howitt, ChristopherHow does one begin to understand the self? Approaching identity as a fragmented and complex form, this thesis argues that true self-knowledge is a thing to be discovered rather than created. As a route in, it offers three separate starting points: faith, the mind and the other. In the first instance, the journey begins with the divine. Approaching theology in light of contemporary theatre practice, God is presented as the origin of creation. From there structural and poststructural linguistic theory is applied to areas of the Bible that tackle identity. Shifting from the celestial realm, Chapter Two pays attention to the unconscious. Postulating that dreams may hold the key to our definitive self, practitioner-theorists Hélène Cixous, Susan Gannon and Richard Russo present the starting point for self-discovery as belonging in the mind. The final chapter offers as its starting point, our place in the collective. Examining the internal/external binary, it postulates that a greater understanding of who we are is gained by understanding our role in contemporary society. After examining audience participation in relation to (self) sacrifice, the Church’s contemporary view towards gender theory is presented, exploring the freedom (and incarceration) of choice. The thesis closes by offering three starting points for the journey of self discovery: the divine, the mind and by examining our relationship with the other. It concludes that true identity should not merely be seen as a final destination, but rather something that is formed along the journey of discovery itself. Item Open AccessFunctions of Code-switching in EFL Classrooms with Native and Non-native Speaker Teachers: A Qualitative Study in A Turkish University(De Montfort University, 2019) Bilgin, GullerThis study aimed to find out how code switching functions in EFL classes with native (NS) and non-native speaker (NNS) teachers by using classroom observation and interview methods. To reach this aim 162 B-level students and 8 teachers were observed for 16 audio- recorded classroom hours in the School of Foreign Languages Department of a private university. In addition, semi-structured interviews were carried out with all of the 8 teachers who participated in the research and 37 students in groups of 4 to 7 from each of the observed classes. NVivo technique was employed to categorise and store the data. The seven functions (themes) which emerged from the utterances made during the interviews and the classroom talks were; ‘motivating, activating and drawing attention’, ‘comprehending’, ‘feeling free while expressing meaning’, ‘cultural orientation’, ‘naturality’, ‘negotiation’, and ‘feeling secure and relaxed’. Results indicated that there were not many noteworthy differences between the functions of code switching used by NS and NNS teachers. Both the NS and NNS teachers switched to the students’ first language for purposes such as helping them comprehend, feel secure and relaxed, motivating and activating them, drawing their attention, and for orienting to their culture. On the other hand, the students’ switching to L1 served comprehending, feeling free while expressing meaning, getting motivated and activated, feeling secure and relaxed, cultural orientation, naturality and negotiating with the teacher. Both NS and NNS teachers let the students switch to L1 but their second turns following the students’ first turns in L1 were observed to be always in L2. It was concluded that students’ switching to L1 for functions such as naturality and negotiating which occurred both in the NNS and NS teachers’ classes might involve some kind of resistance to using a foreign language, thereby hindering target language learning, whereas other functions of code switching might promote it. Item Open AccessOptimization of mechanical mixing of anaerobic digesters using computational fluid dynamics (CFD)(De Montfort University, 2018-09) Wiedemann, LeonhardTo keep biogas production competitive against alternatives in the energy sector, reducing the operating costs is a major challenge for biogas applications. Up to 50 % of the energy consumption in biogas plants is contributed by the digester mixing. Therefore, the optimization of the digester mixing system is a promising approach to increase the overall efficiency of biogas plants. The main objective of the presented thesis is to optimize digester mixing to achieve the highest benefit at the lowest cost. Investigating the mixing process in digesters is a necessary precursor for successful design, operation, and increased efficiency in biogas plants. However, observation of mixing in digesters under real conditions is complex and cost intensive. With an adapted mixing system, a reduction of the operating costs of up to 30 % is possible. Process disturbance and maintenance costs can be minimized and the biogas production within a given digester volume can be maximized. The work shows the process and results of a simplified approach to simulate the mixing dynamic in a common cylindrical digester with computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The CFD simulation is verified by laboratory experiments. Based on the theory of similarity, at the Institute of new Energy Systems of the Technische Hochschule Ingolstadt, a 1:12 scale digester model was set up and an artificial chemical substrate was selected to mimic the rheology of real biomass. Different mixing regimes were configured using propellers and paddle stirrers located in varying positions. Optical and acoustic techniques were employed to observe the fluid dynamics in the laboratory experiment. In this thesis, the laboratory setup and the results on the flow velocity and torque on stirrer shaft developed during mixing are presented and discussed. The experimental are used to validate the similar numeric computational fluid dynamic study. Item Open AccessAn Investigation into Factors Affecting the Chilled Food Industry(De Montfort University, 2017-01) Quinn, Peter Item Open AccessA Theoretical and Experimental Study of Controllable Electricity Production via Biogas Plants(De Montfort University, 2017) Haring, KarlWith the expansion of renewable but fluctuating power generation from wind and solar energy, the demand placed on the security and reliability of supply is increasing. To en-sure grid stability in the future, controllable power production via biogas plants has great technical and economic potential. The main aim of this thesis is a new system design for controlled, demand oriented elec-tricity production via biogas plants, based on system analyses and parameter studies. Derived aims are the analysis of new control strategies and required hardware modifica-tions, e.g. storage capacities and CHP units. Therefore the role of biogas in a future renewable based electricity system is discussed and different overall concepts for a controlled flexible electricity production via biogas are compared. Within a system analysis the current state of technology of biogas plant components, which are affected by a controllable electricity production is described. Building on this, technical requirements are characterised and technical recommenda-tions are given. Since for the realisation of plant concepts for a controlled electricity pro-duction monetary incentive systems are needed. As a potential market the Day-Ahead Auction of the EPEX Spot Se were identified. The concept development takes place via a parameter study, thereby various plant con-cepts are defined by varying the plant sizes, the additional electricity production capaci-ties and the gas storage capacities. Before the actual economic analysis is carried out, different feasible control strategies and the associated earnings, based on different gas storage and electricity production capacities, are presented. Within the economic analysis the necessary additional investment and operating costs for the controllable electricity are discussed and the costs are compared with possible higher revenues. Based on the results of the concept development an existing biogas plant was modified in order to demonstrate the operation of the controllable electricity production via biogas plants. Within the monitoring, the ability of biogas plants to act as a controllable electrici-ty producer were demonstrated. Also practical experiences with respect to the plant and component operation were made. Item Open AccessThe Evolution of Mashup Literature: Identifying the Genre through Jane Austen’s Novels(De Montfort University, 2017-01) Riter, AmandaThe aim of this thesis is to define, categorise, and justify the genre of mashup literature by providing a framework for understanding what mashup literature is, and analysing what it has to offer. The project seeks to examine the development of mashup literature, both from its influences in music and film mashups, as well as from fan fiction and the supernatural and romance genres that are mashed into the new work. The purpose is to show that the bounds of mashup literature as a genre extend beyond the few works that bear the name ‘mashup literature’, and that these works have the capability to comment and critique the source material in the same way as any other adaptation. This thesis analyses the development of mashup literature as part of the larger mashup movement and specifically discusses the influence of music and film mashups on the construction and objectives of mashup literature. This thesis acknowledges that the conception of mashup literature is often quite narrow, but by categorising the genre as part of the mashup movement rather than as independently occurring, this thesis shows the greater breadth and depth that mashup literature has reached and that has thus far gone unacknowledged. This thesis also examines one specific subcategory of mashup literature, tracing its development and discussing specific case studies of its application. By stepping away from the Zombies¬-centric definition of mashup literature and instead viewing it according to the parameters of the mashup movement as a whole, this thesis seeks to provide a more complete understanding of what a mashup novel is, and the value and analysis these works can add to their source texts. Item Open AccessDiscrete-Event Simulation Data Transformation: A Model-Driven Data Integration Approach(De Montfort University, 2016-06) Yusuf, Jamiu MohammedAchieving a smooth production system is a complex process that requires the use of commercial discrete event simulation (DES) tools to provide a high flexibility production process, for instance the use of simulation modelling to model a production system. These tools require high levels of cooperation to work together because they are not designed to be integrated and hardly share their data. This research aims to integrate DES tools applied by different manufacturing systems in order to enable them to share their data. This thesis presents data integration from a simulation model point of view because it views data integration between different DES tools models as key steps towards system integration. A new approach has been developed which is called a Model-Driven Data Integration Approach (MDDI), so named because the integration involves the combination of data from different DES tools model sources. The effectiveness of this data integration approach has been demonstrated in a case study undertaken for DES design of a phone production line in the manufacturing industry. However, the application of the MDDI is not limited to this case study: it can also be used for other system and applications. The MDDI approach was tested and evaluated on the basis of this case study. These test cases simulated how the data integration based on different DES tools’ models react to the process of data sharing as they occur in the manufacturing production line. The result is that the MDDI approach best maintains data consistency and integrity and can be adopted by different industries. Item Open AccessStudent Disability and Employability: Empowering Self-Discovery(De Montfort University, 2016-11) Clarkson, MaryUniversity students with disabilities are supported in a variety of ways designed to help all students realise their academic potential. Students are supported whether they have physical disabilities or cognitive learning difficulties. When these students leave higher education and enter the workplace, what support can they expect? How do they understand and articulate their practical support needs to a prospective employer? Will employers be able to help? Literature suggests that relevant support for disability does exist in the workplace although perhaps not evenly. Fieldwork demonstrates that communication is the main hurdle. A model of student employability is developed that includes all students, with or without disability. The model is augmented and built into an inclusive transition framework designed to support discussion between students and support practitioners, exploring employment-related issues and concerns, and enabling a student to explore and develop their own employability and career. A prototype framework has been successfully piloted with support practitioners and with students, potentially filling the communication gap. Item Open AccessDevelopment of a Knowledge-Based Framework for Demand Management for Refrigerated and Shelf-life Constrained Food Supply Chains(De Montfort University, 2016-06) García-Taylor, Marilú CoromotoFresh produce like fruits and vegetables and food products requiring refrigeration like milk, are characterised by aspects such as perishability, short shelf-life, and high demand fluctuation, which make demand forecasting a vital process affecting not only business profits, but also the amount of waste and the level of customer satisfaction. The research aim is to investigate the feasibility of the knowledge engineering approach (KEA) as an alternative to statistical data analysis to improve demand forecasting, specifically for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the fresh food supply chains (FSCs). The methodology comprised statistical data analysis techniques ranging from simple (correlation analysis) to more advanced (support vector machines) implemented using demand data for specific products provided by a fruit and vegetables wholesaler, to find the most influential internal and external factors affecting demand. After evaluating the results from these techniques, KEA was explored as a possible option to improve demand forecasting. For knowledge acquisition, a questionnaire about demand management was developed, which was used during structured interviews as a tool to externalise the tacit knowledge that the experts use to support decision making for daily demand forecasting. Further sources of information used were on-site interviews and a knowledge engineering tool (KET), updated regularly by the demand planner to aid identifying reasons behind differences between demand prediction and actual orders. The results from the statistical data analysis and support vector machines experiments showed no significant improvement in the accuracy of prediction. The outcomes from the knowledge acquisition process showed the high level of difficulty involved in externalising tacit knowledge from experts. However, the KEA provided direct insight from the experts about the issues affecting demand forecasting in the FSCs. Moreover, the knowledge gathered through the on-site interviews and the KET was used to define rules that could be used to further develop a knowledge-based framework to support demand forecasting. The proposed framework suggests using the KEA alongside other prediction methods to improve prediction accuracy and highlights the importance of targeting the right experts, in order to aid generalising expert knowledge when defining useful rules to support decision making. Item Open AccessUser Intention Modelling and Intention Recognition in Games using World State Indicators(De Montfort University, 2016-07) Brandsetter, Matthias F.The work presented in this thesis focuses on two main areas. First we develop a model of user intentions in games. That model defines various concepts related to player behaviour in (computer) games and interactive environments, such as actions, goals, plans and intentions. Additionally our model shows the relationship between those concepts and explains how they affect each other. The purpose of the model presented here is twofold. One the one hand it provides common definitions for research in the area of user behaviour modelling in games. On the other hand this model also forms the underlying basis for the remainder of our work presented here. The second main area of focus is intention recognition in games. We propose a novel approach which is solely based on monitoring the changes in the game world state, instead of observing player actions. We evaluate current approaches to plan and intention recognition, their strengths and weaknesses. We further compare existing research on intention recognition to our approach and evaluate the performance of our prototype system iRecognise in the context of a case study using the board game RISK. A range of experiments that were carried out demonstrates that our proposed approach to intention recognition is valid and therefore verifies its intention recognition capabilities in the context of games. Item Open AccessInvestigation into teachers’ practice in relation to curriculum implementation in ELT in Bangladesh(De Montfort University, 2016) Islam, Md RafiqulThe study investigates teachers’ practices in relation to curriculum implementation in secondary level education in Bangladesh. The research examines five English language teachers’ classroom activities and compares if their activities are implemented as recommended by the curriculum. It also focuses on the factors that influence the teachers to implement the curriculum. The researcher conducted qualitative research to collect data for this study. As a result, the researcher made classroom observations to see the activities of the teachers in the classroom and conducted interviews afterwards to understand what factors influence the teachers. The analysis of the study reveals that the teachers focus on part of the curriculum in their activities in the classroom. The interviews analysis reveals that the teachers’ activities are different from the recommended activities in the classroom. The result of the study showed that the teachers’ activities are not congruent with the principles of the curriculum as their activities are influenced by other contextual factors. Item Open AccessCOMBINED ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE BEHAVIOUR SYSTEMS IN SERIOUS GAMING(De Montfort University, 2015) Irvine, DavidThis thesis proposes a novel methodology for creating Artificial Agents with semi-realistic behaviour, with such behaviour defined as overcoming common limitations of mainstream behaviour systems; rapidly switching between actions, ignoring “obvious” event priorities, etc. Behaviour in these Agents is not fully realistic as some limitations remain; Agents have a “perfect” knowledge about the surrounding environment, and an inability to transfer knowledge to other Agents (no communication). The novel methodology is achieved by hybridising existing Artificial Intelligence (AI) behaviour systems. In most artificial agents (Agents) behaviour is created using a single behaviour system, whereas this work combines several systems in a novel way to overcome the limitations of each. A further proposal is the separation of behavioural concerns into behaviour systems that are best suited to their needs, as well as describing a biologically inspired memory system that further aids in the production of semi-realistic behaviour. Current behaviour systems are often inherently limited, and in this work it is shown that by combining systems that are complementary to each other, these limitations can be overcome without the need for a workaround. This work examines in detail Belief Desire Intention systems, as well as Finite State Machines and explores how these methodologies can complement each other when combined appropriately. By combining these systems together a hybrid system is proposed that is both fast to react and simple to maintain by separating behaviours into fast-reaction (instinctual) and slow-reaction (behavioural) behaviours, and assigning these to the most appropriate system. Computational intelligence learning techniques such as Artificial Neural Networks have been intentionally avoided, as these techniques commonly present their data in a “black box” system, whereas this work aims to make knowledge explicitly available to the user. A biologically inspired memory system has further been proposed in order to generate additional behaviours in Artificial Agents, such as behaviour related to forgetfulness. This work explores how humans can quickly recall information while still being able to store millions of pieces of information, and how this can be achieved in an artificial system.