School of Engineering and Sustainable Development

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  • ItemOpen Access
    Effect of thermal oxidation on the dry sliding friction and wear behaviour of CP‑Ti on CP‑Ti tribopairs
    (2023-11-22) Sun, Yong; Bailey, Richard; Zhang, Jin; Lian, Yong; Ji, Xiulin
    Thermal oxidation (TO) has proven to be a cost-effective and efficient technique to engineer the surfaces of titanium and its alloys to achieve enhanced surface properties. The benefits of TO treatment in enhancing the tribological properties of titanium have been demonstrated by many investigators. However, most of the reported tribological studies have been based on the contact between a TO treated titanium specimen and a counter-body made of other materials, mainly ceramics, steels and polymers. Very few studies have been reported on the friction and wear behaviour of TO treated titanium sliding against TO treated titanium. In this work, the effect of thermal oxidation on the dry sliding friction and wear behaviour of commercially pure Ti (CP-Ti) on CP-Ti tribopairs was investigated under loading conditions ranging from elastic contact to plastic contact. Comparisons were made among three contact pairs: (1) untreated Ti on untreated Ti (Ti–Ti), (2) untreated Ti on TO treated Ti (Ti-TO) and (3) TO treated Ti on TO treated Ti (TO-TO). The results show that the TO-TO contact pair presents an ideal material combination to achieve the best tribological performance in terms of low friction and superior wear resistance. On the other hand, the Ti–Ti pair presents the worst combination in terms of tribological performance. While the Ti-TO pair performs better than the Ti– Ti pair tribologically, it is not as good as the TO-TO pair. It is essential to thermally oxidize both specimens in order to achieve optimal tribological performance. It is the oxide layer-on-oxide layer contact that imparts the excellent tribological performance. Failure of the oxide layer in one of the contact bodies can lead to high and unstable friction and increased wear from both contacting bodies. The tribological performance of the three contact pairs and the failure mechanism of the oxide layer are discussed in the paper. The results of this work suggest that the TO treated Ti on TO treated Ti contact pair would have potential tribological applications in engineering.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Surface Engineering & Coating Technologies for Corrosion and Tribocorrosion Resistance
    (MDPI, 2023-10-19) Sun, Yong
    The corrosion of materials leads to about 3 to 4% economic losses of GDP in an industrial nation and also significantly contributes to greenhouse emissions and climate change, as the production of materials is one of the largest greenhouse emitters. Corroded material replacement leads to increasing demands in materials production. Therefore, from economic and environmental points of view, it is highly necessary and important to enhance the corrosion and tribocorrosion resistance of materials. Since corrosion and tribocorrosion are surface- and subsurface-related material degradation phenomena, surface engineering and coating technologies are the most effective to tackle such problems. This reprint is a collection of the papers published in the Special Issue “Surface engineering & coatings technologies for corrosion and tribocorrosion resistance” in the Materials journal. The Special Issue aims to collate the latest developments in this technologically, economically, and environmentally important area. It provides a forum for researchers to share their original work or insight reviews in this field. This reprint contains an Editorial by the Guest Editor and 12 original research papers and reviews related to this topic contributed by researchers from around the globe. The editor acknowledges the contributions of all the authors and the Editorial team in making this Special Issue a success
  • ItemOpen Access
    Investigation on the Mist intensity to deposit Gallium Oxide thin films by Mist Chemical Vapour Deposition (M‐CVD)
    (Wiley, 2023-10-29) Ganguly, Swapnodoot; Manjunatha, Krishna Nama; Paul, Shashi
    This study demonstrates a novel, simple and robust Mist‐CVD (M‐CVD) compatible with existing industrial practices to deposit gallium oxide thin films and influence of mist intensity on the properties of gallium oxide. The intensity of the mist generation has been optimized to obtain smooth and uniform thin films. The thin film deposited in this work is mixed phase polycrystalline gallium oxide. UV‐Vis NIR spectroscopy and photo response of thin film unveils that gallium oxide thin film is responsive to ultra‐violet wavelengths including deep UVC and UVB bands and the mist generation intensity has negligible influence on the bandgap of the thin film. Thickness of thin film can be altered by varying the mist intensity. It has been observed that there is no appreciable impact on refractive index of varying mist intensity. Morphological studies prove the formation of ultra‐smooth thin film with rms value of 0.628nm; which is closer and/or better than conventional semiconductor thin film deposition processes used for depositing Ga
  • ItemEmbargo
    Can Knowledge, Responsibility and Environmentalism Explain Preference Heterogeneity? A Latent-Class Probit Model Analysis for Plastic Pollution Abatement
    (World Scientific, 2023-10-28) Tyllianakis, Emmanouil
    This study explores the impact of prior experiences, environmental concern and awareness levels on pro-environmental behavior in the context of mitigation of plastic pollution. Using survey and geo-location data after a tsunami and a monsoon season, this survey employs a latent class analysis through a Generalized Structural Equation Model (GSEM) to identify similarities between groups’ willingness to pay (WTP) to mitigate macroplastic pollution in riverbeds and beaches in Indonesia. Results show that more environmentally conscious respondents were also more sensitive to the issue of pollution while having observed more plastic pollution also increases support for pollution mitigation. Proximity to polluted waterways also increased WTP, especially to urban participants. Overall, accounting for prior experiences, environmental concern and awareness levels does lead to statistical differences between classes, with those scoring higher in these categories being also more willing to monetarily contribute to mitigate that issue. The use of such an integrated latent class model (LCM) can help with disentangling drivers of preferences, especially in the context of determining levels of support for pollution abatement in a developing country.
  • ItemEmbargo
    GQE-Net: A Graph-based Quality Enhancement Network for Point Cloud Color Attribute
    (IEEE, 2023-10-31) Xing, Jinrui; Yuan, Hui; Hamzaoui, Raouf; Liu, Hao; Hou, Junhui
    In recent years, point clouds have become increasingly popular for representing three-dimensional (3D) visual objects and scenes. To efficiently store and transmit point clouds, compression methods have been developed, but they often result in a degradation of quality. To reduce color distortion in point clouds, we propose a graph-based quality enhancement network (GQE-Net) that uses geometry information as an auxiliary input and graph convolution blocks to extract local features efficiently. Specifically, we use a parallel-serial graph attention module with a multi-head graph attention mechanism to focus on important points or features and help them fuse together. Additionally, we design a feature refinement module that takes into account the normals and geometry distance between points. To work within the limitations of GPU memory capacity, the distorted point cloud is divided into overlap-allowed 3D patches, which are sent to GQE-Net for quality enhancement. To account for differences in data distribution among different color components, three models are trained for the three color components. Experimental results show that our method achieves state-of-the-art performance. For example, when implementing GQE-Net on a recent test model of the geometry-based point cloud compression (G-PCC) standard, 0.43 dB, 0.25 dB and 0.36 dB Bjϕntegaard delta (BD)-peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), corresponding to 14.0%, 9.3% and 14.5% BD-rate savings were achieved on dense point clouds for the Y, Cb, and Cr components, respectively. The source code of our method is available at
  • ItemOpen Access
    Editorial: The role of the human dimension in promoting education for sustainable development at the regional level
    (Frontiers, 2023-10-03) Dlouhá, Jana; White, Rehema, M.; Petry, Roger; Reeves, Andrew; Lozano, Rodrigo
    The Frontiers in Sustainability Research Topic “The role of the human dimension in promoting education for sustainable development at the regional level” is comprised of nine articles. This theme was developed in collaboration with editors representing Regional Centres of Expertise (RCEs) on Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) from different regions of the world. In general, RCEs provide a framework in which regional networks of higher education institutions (HEIs), public, private, and civil society organizations play the role of critical partners in the implementation of sustainable development appropriate to regional contexts. The RCE concept is internationally accepted and has been used since 2003. Currently there are 190 RCEs around the world that strive to bridge formal and non-formal education in their respective regions to create an integrated and contextualized agenda on how learning for sustainable development can be better implemented to achieve more sustainable societies and ecological integrity. The involvement of diverse regional actors within an RCE, and the nature of the learning processes that underpin their activities in practice, serve as a model for how to shape ESD in general. However, the growing network of these regional associations with its potential global impact raises many questions. Not only do RCEs offer a new approach to regional development, driven by the sustainability focus of the RCEs, but they also challenge the traditional role of HEIs in generating the knowledge necessary for development processes. To answer some of these questions, the papers in this Research Topic discuss the processes of learning in different regional contexts and their transformative effects. These processes have the potential not only to influence the current environmental, social, and economic situation in different regions, but also to bring innovation to the education system. The papers often focus on the agency of social actors (institutions, networks, and individuals), their shared visions, and their roles and activities carried out in a local/regional context to achieve desirable common goals—the social capital they collectively generate. The research in this Research Topic thus emphasizes the human dimension of these processes, where the exchange of ideas about the future and critical thinking are essential preconditions for change—as opposed to the (often overestimated) focus on technology. An important keyword is innovation: in a safe social environment with supportive relationships, new solutions to persistent problems can emerge, and new perspectives driven by creativity can provide space to ask fundamental questions.
  • ItemMetadata only
    Sensor Placement in Water Distribution Networks Using Centrality Guided Multi-objective Optimisation
    (International Water Association, 2023-10-24) Diao, Kegong; Emmerich, Michael; Lan, Jacob; Iryna, Yevseyeva; Sitzenfrei, Robert
    This paper introduces a multi-objective optimisation approach for the challenging problem of efficient sensor placement in water distribution networks for contamination detection. An important question is, how to identify the minimal number of required sensors without losing the capacity to monitor the system as a whole. In this study, we adapted the NSGA-II multi-objective optimisation method by applying Centrality Mutation. The approach, with two objectives, namely the minimisation of Expected Time of Detection and maximisation of Detection Network Coverage (which computes the number of detected water contamination events), is tested on a moderate sized benchmark problem (129 nodes). The resulting Pareto front shows that Detection Network Coverage can improve dramatically by deploying only a few sensors (e.g., increase from one sensor to three sensors). However, after reaching a certain number of sensors (e.g., 20 sensors) the effectiveness of further increasing the number of sensors is not apparent. Further, the results confirm that 40-45 sensors (i.e. 31%−35% of the total number of nodes) will be sufficient for fully monitoring the benchmark network, i.e. for detection of any contaminant intrusion event no matter where it appears in the network.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Reduced Order Modelling for Multi-disciplinary Design Optimisation
    (8th Aircraft Structural Design Conference 2023, 2023-10) Moni, Abhijith; Yao, Weigang; Malekmohamadi, Hossein
    Aircraft design and optimization in the industry require multiple design rounds usually a trade-off between various objectives and constraints. When multi-disciplinary design optimization (MDO) is of particular interest, the problem becomes more complex because it requires the interaction of different disciplines such as aerodynamics and structural analysis to attain the objectives. Although the field of numerical simulation for solving partial differential equations (PDEs) has significantly developed, enabling the solution to complex dynamics, especially large-scale industrial applications, is still computationally expensive. To meet this interactive requirement in aircraft design optimization, computational methodologies that are fast, reliable, and accurate for routine industry analysis are essential. This work proposes a non-intrusive, data-driven approach for constructing reduced-order models (ROMs) with machine learning (ML) techniques capable of solving PDE-constrained MDO problems. This proposed methodology intends to embed the high-dimensional nonlinear data onto low-dimensional subspace with ML algorithms based on the method of snapshots collected from high-fidelity simulations to make the process of repeatedly solving large-scale MDO problems feasible. However, the training of these reduced-order models is challenging when there are many design parameters to consider, such as in MDO problems. In order to address the challenge associated with training the ROMs, this work will present the algorithms for training the ROM with a piecewise-global reduced-order basis with a confined area of design space. In this article, initial findings pertaining to the prediction of flowfield, coefficients of pressure, as well as forces and moments, using the proposed methodology are presented. These preliminary results are a fundamental step toward the application of this methodology in solving MDO cases. This research brings data-driven multidisciplinary design optimization one step closer to being a practical tool for developing reliable and energy-efficient aircraft configurations, which require routine analyses early in the design cycle.
  • ItemMetadata only
    Electrical Bistability by Creating an Internal Electrical Field and Its Application in Emerging Two-terminal Electronic Memory Devices
    (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2023-10-09) Paul, Febin; Paul, Shashi
    This chapter focusses on the electrical bistability observed in nanocomposite memory devices that have been studied over two decades. Bistability, in the context of memory devices, has been discussed and visual tools have been employed for its examination as a general mathematical function. The bistability observed in memory devices, in terms of electrical hysteresis, has been focussed and typical curves observed in several studies over the last fifty years have been consolidated and systematically examined. The development of the field has led to much confusion in terms of understanding of the device switching mechanism, which has been investigated in detail. The discrepancies in the proposed device behaviour and the observations have over time led to the rise of many opinions/models to explain the physics of the device conduction switching. In this chapter, the charge-trap models have been examined and solutions to some open questions have been proposed in terms of analysing at the system from the perspective of field generation, instead of the material interaction.
  • ItemEmbargo
    Data-Driven Reduced Order Modelling for Aerodynamic Shape Optimisation
    (AIAA SciTech Forum 2023, 2023-01-19) Moni, Abhijith; Yao, Weigang; Malekmohamadi, Hossein
    Despite the increase in computational capabilities, the computational simulation-based approach for aerodynamic shape optimization remains formidable for industrial routine applications. To make this approach acceptable in design practice, data-driven methodologies for building reduced-order models (ROMs) have been proposed. Instead of simplifying the model computed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), the proposed ROM methodology aims to directly reduce the computational complexity of the model non-intrusively. In this article, we propose a machine learning method for building reduced-order models using multi-variate neural networks and demonstrate how it can maintain accuracy for making predictions in the highly non-linear transonic regime. The pyOptSparse framework is used to provide an interface to the ROM-based optimization process. To demonstrate the convergence, stability, and reliability of the ROM, the ADODG (AIAA Aerodynamic Design Optimization Discussion Group) NACA 0012 first benchmark case of inviscid transonic optimization is extensively studied using the SU2 software package and used for the purpose of validating the proposed ROM methodology.
  • ItemEmbargo
    Wing Rock Prediction in Free-to-Roll Motion Using CFD Simulations
    (Aerospace Europe Conference 2023 - 10th EUCASS - 9th CEAS, 2023-10-02) Sereez, Mohamed; Lambert, Caroline; Abramov, Nikolay; Goman, M. (Mikhail G.)
    The free-to-roll wing rock CFD simulation of a slender 80-degree delta wing is performed using the Dynamic Fluid-Body Interaction (DFBI) framework and the overlap/chimera mesh method. The purpose of the simulations carried out was to test the capabilities of the current CFD methods for predicting wing rock motion over a wide range of angles of attack, including strong conical vortex interactions and vortex breakdown phenomenon. The predictions of steady aerodynamic dependencies and the aerodynamic stability derivatives based on forced oscillation tests along with the time histories of the wing rock motion of an 80-degree delta wing are in good qualitative and quantitative agreement with the available wind tunnel experimental data demonstrating onset of the wing rock motion. At higher angles of attack with vortex breakdown CFD simulations demonstrated an excitation of the large amplitude regular oscillations or the low amplitude chaotic oscillations depending on the applied initial conditions.
  • ItemMetadata only
    Piezoelectric effects on bone modeling for enhanced sustainability
    (Elsevier, 2023-09-20) Oladapo, Bankole I.; Ismail, Sikiru O.; Kayode, Joseph F.; Ikumapayi, Omolayo M.
    Bone tissue possesses piezoelectric properties, allowing mechanical forces to be converted into electrical potentials. Piezoelectricity has been demonstrated to play a crucial role in bone remodelling and adaptability. Bone remodelling models that consider strain adaptation, both with and without piezoelectric effects, were simulated and validated in this study. This simulation help to better comprehend the interplay between mechanical and electrical stimulations during these processes. This study aimed to optimise the modelling of piezoelectric effects in bone modelling analysis. The connection between mechanical loads applied to bones and the resulting electrical charges generated by the piezoelectric effect was examined. Furthermore, mathematical modelling and simulation techniques were employed to enhance the piezoelectric effect and promote bone tissue growth and repair. The findings from this research have substantial implications for developing novel therapies for bone-related diseases and injuries. It was observed that electrically stimulated bone surfaces increased bone deposition. In some instances of physical disability or osteoporosis, therapeutic electrical stimulation can supplement the mechanical stresses of regular exercise to prevent bone loss. Consequently, the bone remodelling method on the software platform enables easy application and repetition of finite element analysis. This study significantly benefits bone tissue/biomedical engineering, particularly in bone remodelling, healing, and repair.
  • ItemMetadata only
    Nonintrusive Aerodynamic Shape Optimisation with a POD-DEIM Based Trust Region Method
    (MDPI, 2023-05-17) Marques, Simão; Kob, Lucas; Robinson, Trevor T.; Yao, Weigang
    This work presents a strategy to build reduced-order models suitable for aerodynamic shape optimisation, resulting in a multifidelity optimisation framework. A reduced-order model (ROM) based on a discrete empirical interpolation (DEIM) method is employed in lieu of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solvers for fast, nonlinear, aerodynamic modelling. The DEIM builds a set of interpolation points that allows it to reconstruct the flow fields from sets of basis obtained by proper orthogonal decomposition of a matrix of snapshots. The aerodynamic reduced-order model is completed by introducing a nonlinear mapping function between surface deformation and the DEIM interpolation points. The optimisation problem is managed by a trust region algorithm linking the multiple-fidelity solvers, with each subproblem solved using a gradient-based algorithm. The design space is initially restricted; as the optimisation trajectory evolves, new samples enrich the ROM. The proposed methodology is evaluated using a series of transonic viscous test cases based on wing configurations. Results show that for cases with a moderate number of design variables, the approach proposed is competitive with state-of-the-art gradient-based methods; in addition, the use of trust region methodology mitigates the likelihood of the optimiser converging to, shallower, local minima.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Seeing the wood for the trees: a heuristic framework to enable the integration of sustainability education in higher education settings
    (Taylor and Francis, 2023-09-06) Gwilliam, Julie; Reeves, Andrew; Timuș, Natalia
    This paper puts forward a conceptual framework to support the dual challenges of strategic and practical integrative action of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) across Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). There are numerous existing resources and toolkits providing appropriate actions, guidance or approaches to monitor and measure ESD engagement. Our intended distinctive contribution in this paper is to complement these with heuristic ways of thinking that offer clarity on the context and evolution of progress on ESD at an institutional level. Our proposals were developed through structured comparative discussions by ESD practitioners from seven European universities, leading to a consensus view on key contextual influences across a range of environments, embodied in our proposed heuristic metaphors. The resulting proposed framework, built upon a systems-based visual metaphor of a forest ecosystem of HEIs, proposes the use of the dimensions of capacity and commitment, to define an integrative framework with four positional scenarios: ”Pockets of Practice”, “Emerging Agenda” to ”Integrated Impact” and “Off the Agenda”. To illustrate its application, it is used to contextualize relevant steps to progress ESD associated with each scenario in the areas of strategy, staff development, formal education and extra-curricular opportunities. We argue that the adoption of such a framework by HEI practitioners could support day-to-day decision-making and strategic planning towards an integrated approach to ESD that engages with all areas of university activity.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Nonlinear Manifold Learning and Model Reduction for Transonic Flows
    (AIAA, 2023-09-12) Zheng, Boda; Yao, Weigang; Xu, Min
    It is aspirational to construct a nonlinear reduced-order model (ROM) with the ability to predict computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solutions accurately and efficiently. One major challenge is that the nonlinearity cannot be captured adequately by interpolation algorithm in low-dimensional space. To preserve the nonlinearity of CFD solutions for transonic flows, a new ROM is presented by integrating manifold learning into a constrained optimization, whereby a neighborhood preserving mapping is constructed by locally linear embedding (LLE) algorithm. Reconstruction errors are minimized in LLE by solving a least square problem subject to weight constraints. A loss function is proposed in the constrained optimization to preserve the geometric properties between high-dimensional space and low-dimensional manifolds. The proposed ROM is validated to predict nonlinear transonic flows over RAE 2822 airfoil and undeflected NASA Common Research Model with aspect ratio 9, in which nonlinearities are induced by shock waves. All results confirm that the ROM replicates CFD solutions accurately at fraction of the cost of CFD calculation or the full-order modeling.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Waste Management in Nepal: Characterization and Challenges to Promote a Circular Economy.
    (Springer, 2023-07-25) Labra Cataldo, Nicolás; Oyinlola, M.A.; Sigdel, Samip; Nguyen, Dori; Gallego-Schmid, Alejandro
    In Nepal, the informal sector is responsible for treating 15% of household waste. It is the only alternative to landfilling and open disposal; however, the current waste management system does not acknowledge informal recyclers aggravating various challenges and vulnerabilities that the sector already faces. This study identifies and validates for the first time the challenges of the informal waste sector while providing a granular understanding of the actors that shape waste management in the region. The study uses primary data collected over a period of 6 months in Kathmandu and Lalitpur, the first and third most populated areas in Nepal. The methods considered were semi-structured interviews, questionnaires, and a co-creation workshop with formal and informal actors. A novel characterization of waste management actors was conducted to identify two profiles namely cyclists and scavengers and question the formality of the collection centres. Findings suggest that the price volatility of recycled materials and the lack of treatment and absence of regulatory capacity are among the main challenges in promoting a circular economy from the informal sector. The recommendations to overcome these challenges are a series of policy reforms, such as an extended responsibility producer scheme and the review of the tax on recycled material transport. The main policy implication from the finding reveals that circular economy is already being promoted by the informal sector — a responsibility that should fall under the remit of the regional and national governments. The study concludes that integration is not only necessary to improve the conditions of informal workers but essential to developing a circular economy in Nepal.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Optimizing Solar Parabolic Trough Receivers with External Fins: An Experimental Study on Enhancing Heat Transfer and Thermal Efficiency.
    (MDPI, 2023-09-10) Limboonruang, Teerapath; Oyinlola, M.A.; Harmanto, Dani; Bunyawanichakul, Pracha; Phunapai, Nittalin
    Several researchers have shown that the heat transfer performance of solar parabolic trough (SPT) receivers may be improved by increasing their surface area or by adding internal fins to the tubes. Unfortunately, the manufacture of internally finned tubes involves complex processes, resulting in significant cost increases. On the other hand, the addition of external fins to tubes is more technically and economically feasible in a low-resource setting. This study investigates the potential benefits of integrating external fins on the receiver tubes of a low-cost SPT collector system. Experiments were conducted using an SPT system with a focal length of 300 mm and a collector length of 5.1 m, and they were positioned by an automated Sun tracking system. Tests were undertaken using both smooth and externally finned receiver tubes operating at five different water flow rates. The solar receiver with a finned tube was able to provide a maximum water temperature of 59.34 °C compared with that of 56.52 °C for a smooth tube at a flow rate of 0.5 L per minute. The externally finned absorber tube was also found to have a maximum efficiency of 18.20% at an average daily solar intensity of 834.61 W/m2, which is approximately 48% more efficient than the smooth tube. The calculations indicate that the experimental SPT system using finned tubes potentially avoids 0.2726 metric tons of CO2e per year, with finned tubes outperforming smooth tubes by up to 44%. The results show that using externally finned receiver tubes can significantly enhance the thermal performance of SPT collector systems.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Thermodynamic Performance Analysis of High Thermal Conductivity Materials in Borehole Heat Exchangers in the European Climate
    (MDPI, 2023-09-07) Khattak, Sanober; Badenes, Borja; Urchueguia, Javier; sanner, barkhard
    While heat pumps have been acknowledged as a key enabling technology to achieve Net Zero goals, their uptake is limited by their performance and cost. In this paper, a simulation-based study is conducted to analyse the performance of ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) utilising high thermal conductivity materials for the borehole heat exchanger (BHE) pipe (1 W/mK) and grouting (3 W/mK) developed in the GEOCOND project. Exergy analysis is conducted to account for energy quantity and quality with a focus on BHE performance. An annual hourly simulation was performed using DesignBuilder V5.4 and Earth Energy Designer (EED4) for representative cool and hot locations in Europe—Stockholm and Valencia, respectively. For a constant BHE length, the results for Stockholm show that the high conductivity materials result in an increase of about 13% BHE exergy extraction compared to the standard grout and pipe, but no such improvement was observed for Valencia. The difference between outdoor temperature and its dynamic variation from the indoor setpoint is identified as a key factor in the overall GSHP exergetic performance. In future research, we propose a thorough life cycle analysis across diverse locations and varying indoor comfort criteria to pinpoint areas where the high thermal conductivity material can enable cost-effective, sustainable heating and cooling.
  • ItemOpen Access
    A review on BIPV-induced temperature effects on urban heat islands
    (Elsevier, 2023-06-28) Elhabodi, Tarek S.; Yang, Siliang; Parker, James; Khattak, Sanober; He, Bao-Jie; Attia, Shady
    Urban Heat Islands (UHI) occur in and around cities, leading to warmer temperatures than in surrounding rural areas. The UHI effect increases energy demand, air pollution levels, and heat-related illness and mortality. Solar energy is one of the most widely adopted renewable energy generation technologies in the built environment. Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, integrated into building envelopes, can form a cohesive design, construction and energy solution for buildings, namely, building-integrated photovoltaic system (BIPV). However, the BIPV panels might potentially exacerbate the UHI intensity by trapping more heat in urban areas. This review paper uses a detailed literature survey of over 100 sources to evaluate whether the uptake of BIPV systems in urban areas contributes to an aggravation of the UHI effect. The survey found both direct and indirect impacts of BIPV systems on UHI, which also identified the fundamental causes of UHI such as the albedo effect and heat dispersion and how this would be embodied in the BIPV installations. Furthermore, this paper discusses how to mitigate the impact of BIPV systems on the UHI, as well as the future research directions around this concern in relation to the urban design.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Resistive and capacitive technology recipes for peak cooling load reductions in the global south
    (Elsevier, 2023-01-20) Chung, WJ; Khattak, SH; Cecinati, F; Jeong, SG; Kershaw, T; Allen, S; Park, Cheol-Soo; Coley, D; Natarajan, S