Item Open AccessRisk Management Practices in Malaysia(Springer Cham, 2023-07-27) Oke, A. E.; Adetoro, P. E.; Stephen, S.; Aigbavboa, C.; Oyewobi, L.; Aghimien, D.This volume describes risk management practices in the construction industry in selected countries, with an emphasis on developing countries and how these countries can learn from the practices in more developed ones. Risk management in the construction industry can be difficult to understand due to the various complex procedures that are involved and to the unique concerns and contexts associated with each project. The industry has been a key contributor to the economic and social development of many countries of the world and is increasingly incorporating sustainability into its practices. However, it is plagued by various risks that can affect the quality, cost, time and overall sustainability of projects. Therefore, there is a need to effectively manage risk in order to ensure timely completion of construction projects in good quality and within budget, which in turn results in more efficient and often more sustainable practices. The book is divided into four parts. The first section features a primer on risk management practices as they pertain to the construction industry. The second part dives to describe risk management in selected developing countries, including Malaysia, Qatar, Saudi-Arabia, South Africa, Sri-Lanka and Tanzania, as well as the city of Hong Kong. The third section describes the construction risk management practices of a selection of more developed countries with known risk management institutes and established practices of risk management. These countries include Australia, Canada, Sweden and the United States of America. The fourth part offers a general overview of the definition, concepts and process of risk management based on reviewed literature. It also discusses the benefits of effective risk management to clients and project teams, especially from the perspective of ensuring sustainability. This last section also summarizes the risk management practices in both developing and developed countries for the purpose of improving the practices in the former by learning from the latter. Item Open AccessMitigating Overheating Risks for Modern Flats in London Due to Climate Change(MDPI, 2023-10-28) Taki, Ahmad; Jariwala, MansiWith the increase in global temperatures, a significant threat of overheating has been reported due to more frequent and severe heatwaves in the UK housing stock. This research analyzes dwellings’ physical attributes through overheating assessments and their adaptation for modern flats in London in the current (2022) and anticipated (2050) weather. According to preliminary research, Southeast and London in England, mid-terraced, and flats (especially built post 2012), among other archetypes, were discovered to be the most susceptible to overheating in the UK. This study employed a case study of a 2015 modern flat located in a high-risk overheating zone in London to understand the building’s overheating exposure. A range of Dynamic Thermal Simulations (DTS) was conducted using EnergyPlus with reference to case studies in order to assess the performance of passive cooling mitigation strategies (PCMS) on peak summer days (15 July) as well as during the summer against CIBSE Guide A and ASHARE 55. Reduced window area and LoE triple glazing were identified as excellent mitigation prototypes, in which solar gains through exterior glazing were reduced by 85.5% due to triple glazing. Zone sensible cooling was reduced by 52%, which minimized CO2 emissions. It was also identified that the final retrofit model passed CIBSE Guide A by achieving a temperature threshold of 20 C to 25 C during the summer months, whereas it failed to accomplish the ASHARE 55 criteria (20–24 C). The outcome of this study justifies the necessity of tested PCMS and advises UK policymakers on how to foster resilient housing plans to overcome overheating issues. Item EmbargoPhotology, Photography, and Actinochemistry: The Photographic Work of John Herschel(Cambridge University Press, 2024) Wilder, KelleyJohn Herschel published at least nine important articles on photographic chemistry between 1819 and 1858. He introduced hyposulphite as a fixer and seven new imaging processes, among them the Cyanotype or, as it became commonly known, the blueprint. He produced negatives on glass, anticipating the breakout innovation of the 1850s by a decade. He is well known for popularizing important vocabulary like “photography,” “snapshot,” “negative,” and “positive,” and he was instrumental in supporting a thriving network of individuals now considered photographic pioneers. This chapter demonstrates how Herschel's contribution to photochemistry should be evaluated outside of photographic history, and how it relates to the growing field of industrial chemistry in the nineteenth century. Item Metadata onlyDesigning Sustainable Housing Using a User-Centred Approach: Paipe Case Study(MDPI, 2023-09-30) Abbakyari, Maryam; Abuzeinab, Amal; Adefila, Arinola; Whitehead, Timothy; Oyinlola, MuyiwaThis paper presents a user-centred design method for developing prototype housing designs in the Paipe community of Abuja, Nigeria, addressing the challenges posed by rapid urbanisation in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). UCD is a qualitative methodology that prioritises end users in the design process. This study employs qualitative methods to collect data through interviews, field surveys, and site analysis using a single case study. The UCD approach was used to develop a profile of residents and identify their needs and preferences. Thematic analysis of the data led to the creation of design specifications and prototype designs. Two design options were developed: a cluster design based on field survey observations and an enclosed modern design based on residents’ preferences. This study contends that user-centred design (UCD) is essential for sustainable housing provision in LMICs, aligning with the United Nations’ adequate-housing programme. Item Metadata onlyBartramONeill Actions 2009 - 2014(Apple, 2014-03-06) O'Neill, Mary; Bartram, AngelaAngela Bartram and Mary O’Neill are a collaborative partnership whose work centres on art and ethics and the documentation of performance through situated writing and text that moves beyond formal academic conventions. They offer an alternative creative strategy to the binaries of theory and practice, academic and artist, event and text. The site of their practice is not just the physical location, but includes the artist's body, the anticipated audience, the environment, the document, and the atmosphere. Rather than prioritising one form over another, each manifestation is seen as having generative potential for further creative responses, creating an ongoing work. Item Open AccessThermal performance characterization of cement-based masonry blocks incorporating rice husk ash(Elsevier, 2023-07-21) Onyenokporo, Nwakaego; Taki, Ahmad; Zapata, Luis; Oyinlola, MuyiwaOwing to climate change and its effects, interest has grown in finding alternative building materials to improve the energy efficiency of building envelopes and reduce CO2 emissions and costs. This study focuses on the thermal performance of cement-based masonry blocks, which are popular in many parts of the world for masonry wall construction. Masonry blocks were incorporated with rice husks, which are agricultural wastes commonly found in tropical countries and are usually dumped in landfills. Previous research on the use of rice husk ash (RHA) for construction purposes has focused on the durability properties of the product without much consideration for properties such as thermal conductivity or thermal transmittance coefficient (U-value), which are important for quantifying the overall energy performance of buildings. High U-values of building elements typically result in high heat gains in tropical countries, which increases the use of mechanical cooling systems to improve occupants’ thermal comfort, thereby increasing building energy consumption. The study involved an experimental investigation using the laboratory hot box and heat flow metre method for U-value measurements in accordance with BS EN ISO 8990 and 9869. Several samples were prepared by partially replacing Portland cement with 5%, 10%, and 15% RHA by weight of cement. The results reflect up to a 17% reduction in the U values and thermal conductivities of all block samples. The lowest value of 3.04 W/m2K was obtained from RHA 15% compared to 3.67 W/m2K from the control sample. The results of this study show the prospects of improving building energy consumption, occupants’ thermal comfort, and building CO2 emissions using masonry blocks incorporating RHA for external building walls in tropical countries. Item EmbargoDaylight Performance Simulation Prediction Accuracy: Processing Speed Trade-off(College Publishing, 2023-06-20) Abdelwahab, Sahar; Rutherford, Peter; Mayhoub, MohammedIn daylighting performance simulations of façade systems, a trade-off is often required between processing speed and prediction accuracy. This is particularly relevant at design onset, where plausible simulation outcomes are essential to drive decisions between several alternative façade configurations. To help address this trade-off, this paper presents a sensitivity analysis evaluating the influence of key input parameter settings, namely ambient bounces and grid size, on the convergence of performance outcomes and on simulation run times. The results provide statistical evidence that, although lower precision settings mostly accelerate calculations, they decrease the accuracy of prediction estimates, particularly for complex façades. Conversely, the relative increased accuracy resulting from higher precision simulations might reach a point where differences have a negligible practical impact. The paper concludes with a range of recommendations to support the early-stage selection of parameter settings and contributes to more robust simulation outcomes towards reducing the gap between simulated and measured data. Item Open AccessVisual Discomfort Analysis as a Tool to Support Façade Shading Design: A Case Study in the Architectural Design Studio.(ASCE, 2022-02-23) Abdelwahab, Sahar; Sobh, HeshamWhile daylight admittance in educational buildings is of high importance, the associated visual discomfort issues can negatively impact student productivity and well-being. This paper reports the outcomes of a case study of the architectural studios at Al-Azhar University, Cairo, where visual discomfort due to daylight intrusion was reported by 49% of the students, leading to difficulties while performing multiple vertical and horizontal tasks. To address this issue, visual discomfort simulation analyses were conducted for 78 view positions with respect to façade shading systems (fixed shading and dynamic electrochromic glazing). To predict the level of visual discomfort for multiple view targets, three indicators, horizontal illuminance, vertical-eye illuminance, and daylight glare probability, were used. A simulation workflow of daylight and glare was developed to shade each dynamic window individually whenever the defined criteria are met. The results showed evident reductions in the hours of visual discomfort based on the three indicators from 83%, 84%, and 37% to 8%, 19%, and 3%, respectively (southwest), and from 57%, 71%, and 13% to 2%, 10%, and 1%, respectively (northeast). The proposed simulation workflow can be used in future practices to improve façade-shading performance to protect against visual discomfort under similar climatic contexts. Item EmbargoBeautiful Experiments in Art and Science(Routledge, 2023-06-16) Anscomb, ClaireScientific experiments and the artistic experiments of avant-garde artists are often praised for the simplicity or economy of their designs. In the former case, appreciators also tend to report a sense of pleasure, judging the work as beautiful. Curiously, this is typically absent in the latter case, despite shared properties like simplicity or economy. To explain these diverging responses to scientific and artistic experiments, this chapter examines different conceptions of beauty and whether they can accommodate the phenomena under discussion. From this, it is argued that a long-neglected conception of beauty, functional beauty, can account for the differing experiences reported by appreciators of artistic and scientific experiments. Item Open AccessVisibility, creativity, and collective working practices in art and science(Springer, 2020-10-24) Anscomb, ClaireVisual artists and scientists frequently employ the labour of assistants and technicians, however these workers generally receive little recognition for their contribution to the production of artistic and scientific work. They are effectively “invisible”. This invisible status however, comes at the cost of a better understanding of artistic and scientific work, and improvements in artistic and scientific practice. To enhance understanding of artistic and scientific work, and these practices more broadly, it is vital to discern the nature of an assistant or technician’s contribution to the production of a work, which is difficult as it is uncommon to discuss these workers. To address this, I investigate how different kinds of parallel working arrangements in collective artistic and scientific practices affect the creative potential of individuals involved. Different working arrangements permit different degrees of autonomy for individuals involved in these practices. Significantly, a lack of autonomy precludes the opportunity to act spontaneously and so exercise, what I term, “creative agency”. Evaluating the contribution of an assistant or technician based on the degree of autonomy that they are granted in the production of a work is an approach that I show can be used to precisely determine the nature of their contribution to the production of a work and accordingly, what kind of recognition an agent should receive for this. Importantly, this approach has the advantage of explaining the artistic and epistemic significance of different kinds of contribution to the production of artistic and scientific work. Item Open AccessCreative Agency as Executive Agency: Grounding the Artistic Significance of Automatic Images(Oxford University Press, 2021-09-15) Anscomb, ClaireThis article examines the artistic potential of forms of image-making that involve registering the features of real objects using mind-independent processes. According to skeptics, these processes limit an agent’s intentional control over the features of the resultant “automatic images,” which in turn limits the artistic potential of the work, and the form as a whole. I argue that this is true only if intentional control is understood to mean that an agent produces the features of the work by their own bodily movements alone. Not only is this an unrealistic standard to uphold, but I show that a definition of intentional control based on the skeptic’s position does not prohibit an agent from realizing the features of an image by means beyond their own actions. An agent can exercise intentional control over the features of an image if they successfully anticipate the effect that the remote consequences of their actions will have on these. This, I argue, entails that to exert intentional control over the features of an image is to exercise “creative agency,” which is a species of executive agency. Consequently, I defend the idea that the origin of automatic images in creative agency grounds their artistic significance. Item Open AccessLook a Little (Chuck) Closer: Aesthetic Attention and the Contact Phenomenon(Oxford University Press, 2022-07-15) Anscomb, ClaireThere is a sustained phenomenological tradition of describing the character of photographic pictorial experience to consist in part of a feeling of contact with the subject of the photograph. Philosophers disagree, however, about the exact cause of the ‘contact phenomenon’ and whether there is a difference in the phenomenal character between the pictorial experiences of photographs and handmade pictures so that, if a viewer mistakes the type that a token image belongs to, their sense of contact can alter. I argue that the contact phenomenon is contingent upon, and triggered by, the viewer’s perceptual experience of the image, which may be subject to change depending upon how a viewer attends to an image. I develop a hybrid account to resolve how the perceptual and cognitive aspects of a viewer’s experience interact and produce the complex phenomenology, including conflicting mental states, that a viewer can undergo during the described experiences. Item Open AccessWhy Draw Pictures That Already Exist? Photo-based Drawings and the Presence Phenomenon(Loughborough University, 2022-04-21) Anscomb, ClaireIt is widely held that, due to its causal nature, photography is the visual medium best suited for enabling individuals to form a sense of perceptual contact with distant or deceased subjects, and so to mitigate against the loss of the subject. Yet, a number of artists, who have meticulously recreated photographs by a slow, laborious process of drawing, have reported that this manual activity has afforded a richer sense of connectedness with the distant or lost subjects. In this article, I produce a phenomenological analysis of this experience, which I term the “presence phenomenon”. To explain this phenomenon, I employ recent work from philosophy of perception and philosophy of mind to argue that the act of drawing, unlike looking at a photograph, presents affordances for bodily action that, in combination with the realism of the work, trigger sub-doxastic associative mechanisms that produce an enhanced sense of connection to the subject. Item Open AccessCreating Art with AI(University of Pisa, 2022-08-24) Anscomb, ClaireComputers appear to be working more autonomously than ever before to generate visual outputs, thanks to recent advances in Artificial Intelligence (AI). Some humans have exhibited these products as artworks and given sole credit to these systems as the creators of them. Furthermore, human audiences who are unaware of the AI origins of the works have rated them higher than those produced by humans. Although these newer systems look creative in these cases, this impression is not enough to establish that the AIs are artistically creative. In this paper, I examine whether such AIs meet the conditions that would qualify them as creative agents and what the repercussions are of taking monist and pluralist conceptions of artistic value on the kind and share of credit that we grant an AI for its contribution to a work of visual art. Item Open Access#filterdrop: Attending to Photographic Alterations(The Nordic Society for Aesthetics, 2023) Anscomb, ClaireIt is well-documented that the alteration of portrait photographs can have a negative impact on a viewer’s self-esteem. One might think that providing written disclaimers warning of alteration might help to mitigate this effect, yet empirical studies have shown that viewers continue to feel like what they are seeing is real, and thus attainable, despite knowing it is not. I propose that this cognitive dissonance occurs because disclaimers fail to show viewers how to look at the contents of a photographic image differently. Consequently, viewers have the same perceptual experience, where the picture appears to faithfully resemble a direct visual experience of the subject, which conflicts with their changing sense of warrant. However, I argue that the degree of perceived similarity, and so contact, may be subject to change depending on what a viewer is attentive to during their viewing of an image, including subtle but unrealistic signs of alteration. Item Open AccessHybridized, Influenced, or Evolved? A Typology to Aid the Categorization of New and Developing Arts(Oxford University Press, 2023) Anscomb, ClaireThe category in which an artwork is received impacts its aesthetic significance. Yet, it can be unclear how to classify new and developing arts - particularly when they share features with pre-existing arts. One approach to conceiving of the relation between such arts is to discern whether they are hybrid art forms. However, this approach primarily focuses on the technical aspects of production, making it particularly difficult to classify digital arts, which often rely on shared technology and techniques. To rectify this and more effectively account for the ways that arts are hybridized, influenced, and evolved, I develop a typology that considers arts in terms of both techniques and norms for appreciation. In doing so, I establish an approach that better reflects the empirical facts of, and so can more accurately track the relevant distinctions between, different arts. Item EmbargoUsers’ window preferences and motivations of shading control: Influence of cultural characteristics(Elsevier, 2023-05-25) Abdelwahab, Sahar; Kent, Michael; Mayhoub, MohammedWindow shading control is motivated by many reasons. Very few studies consider the influence of non-physical factors that underpin occupant motives for shading control. A candidate reason that concerned this study was cultural differences. Diverging values, beliefs and norms can lead to different design considerations for building architecture to accommodate users’ expectations. This can also influence a wider array of window functions, e.g., daylight access, thermal comfort, natural ventilation, privacy and view out. We investigated the influence of cultural differences in this context. An online survey was administered to collect responses from Arab and non-Arab population groups from across the globe. We compared how occupants would prioritise different window functions in their typical workspaces to better meet their needs across these two groups. The analyses showed that Arab respondents prioritised privacy more than non-Arab respondents. The importance placed on privacy was consistently larger for the Arab group when they worked from their own residential home (r = −0.36), rather than at their office workspace (r = −0.16). Shading control for daylight access was a highly prioritised motive for both groups, which was also equally weighted as the most important reason for both opening and closing window shades with no statistical difference (r = -0.10) found between both groups. Thermal comfort was deemed more important by the Arab respondents, although this may have been caused by climate factors. The study highlights how culture has important implications on window preferences and shading control, which can be influential in the context of design considerations to accommodate user needs. Item Open AccessUnderstanding Upcycling and Circular Economy and Their Interrelationships through Literature Review for Design Education(Cambridge University Press, 2023-07-01) Sung, KyungeunDesign and engineering are fundamental activities in shaping the world we live in. Educating new generations in design and engineering, therefore, is crucial to build a better and more sustainable world. The changes in education for the transition from a linear economy to a circular economy, in particular, has become a priority for many educators. Aligned with the circular economy, a promising umbrella concept and practice called 'upcycling' is emerging. The concepts and practices in the circular economy and upcycling overlap depending on the definitions of the terms in various disciplines and sectors in different parts of the world. This has caused some confusion and misunderstanding. For educators aiming to teach students about sustainable design, production and consumption, it is beneficial to distinguish between these two concepts. Understanding the relationships (or interrelationships) between them in theory and practice is important for the educators to offer clear guidance and recommendations to future designers and engineers. This paper provides literature review on upcycling and circular economy, compares these two concepts, and visualises their interrelationship as draft teaching materials for design education.