Department of Politics, People & Place

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  • ItemOpen Access
    “Now Boarding”: Towards new geographies of aeromobility
    (Sage, 2024-06-20) Adey, Peter; Lin, Weiqiang; Barry, Kaya; Harris, Tina; Fretigny, Jean-Baptiste; Budd, Lucy
    In this article, we build on Adey, Budd and Hubbard’s 2007 ‘Flying Lessons’ paper by proposing four trajectories – bodies, infrastructures, technologies and disruptions – along which future research may follow for aeromobility studies. Since ‘Flying Lessons’, concerns for aviation have spread and developed into new areas beyond the experience of the individual air-passenger, but they have also remained somewhat disparate. Our article seeks to synthesise, trace and evaluate these shifts, and to draw out their interconnections, inter-referentialisms and contradictions. We envision a future geographies of flying that is far more entangled and attuned to aeromobilities' ambiguous relations, both human and more-than-human.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Factors affecting the cessation of commercial air services at English regional airports.
    (Elsevier, 2024-06-18) Budd, Lucy; Ison, Stephen; Graham, Anne
    Although much of the existing research on regional airports focuses on their contribution to regional economic development, regional airports in England, as in other deregulated markets, operate in a highly competitive market and not all have been able to sustain commercial flights. This paper examines the factors that have led to the cessation of commercial air services at English regional airports following liberalisation of the European air transport market in 1992. Six factors which have contributed to air service cessation are identified and potential futures for smaller regional airports discussed.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Whose Opinion Matters? Community Stakeholders’ Perceptions of Legitimacy and Engagement in Branding Northamptonshire
    (Academy of Marketing, 2023-07-06) Bisani, Shalini; Daye, Marcella; Mortimer, Kathleen
    This paper views place branding as a stakeholder-led strategy for creating a distinctive identity and narrative for places to gain recognition and competitive advantage. Residents and voluntary organisations are integral stakeholders and co-producers of a place; however, they are often relegated to consumers of the place brand. This paper explores how community stakeholders perceive their engagement in place branding, which ultimately implicates issues of legitimacy and inclusiveness of socioeconomic and cultural policies.
  • ItemOpen Access
    A Cost-Effective Approach for Inventory- Transportation to Address Carbon Tax Policy
    (IEOM, 2024) Eslamipoor, Reza
    The growing concern regarding global warming has resulted in the implementation of regulations aimed at progressively diminishing the volume of greenhouse gases released by industrial sectors and their associated supply chains. This research study concentrates on quantifying the carbon emissions within a two-tiered supply chain, in which a single supplier distributes a single product to different retailers, while also coordinating the many elements of the chain including transportation and inventory. A mixed integer programming (MIP) approach has been developed to attain this goal. This model considers decisions such as the time and quantity of replenishment for each retailer, the types of transportation vehicles employed, and the number of products transported by each vehicle. The goal of this optimization model is not only a reduction in transportation expenses and inventory management costs but also carbon emissions across the supply chain which can be reduced by regarding tax as a leverage.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Future Flight: an opportunity for more accessible air travel?
    (Taylor and Francis, 2024-06-02) Budd, Lucy; Jones, Peter; Ison, Stephen
    Future Flight, which involves the development and proposed adoption of new aeronautical technologies and built environments including uncrewed aircraft, air taxis and vertiports, is presented as an opportunity to revolutionise commercial air travel. This article discusses current barriers to accessible aviation and asks whether (and how) future aviation systems can be more accessible.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Docked bikeshare: A review of the interrelationship between socio-economic disadvantage and the built environment.
    (Taylor and Francis, 2024-06-05) Moore, Patrick; Lipika, Deka; Amaugo, Amarachi; Budd, Lucy; Ison, Stephen
    Promoted for their contribution towards decarbonising transport, encouraging modal shift, and improving health outcomes, bikeshare schemes (BSS) have developed worldwide. However, evidence suggests that fixed docking stations are often disproportionately located in white, high-income and high employment areas. Consequently, certain (often disadvantaged) communities may not be able to benefit as much as others from BSS. Interrelated issues concerning the built environment and socio-economic disadvantage include inequities related to population and residential accessibility, cycle lane access, docking station density and location, integration with public transport, access to city centres, universities, and unsafe areas. The paper reviews these aspects and discusses their implications for docking station planning practices that incorporate built environment insights and facilitate equitable access and use. Future research directions pertaining to examining the interrelationship between the built environment and disadvantage are suggested.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Commercial airline pilots' job satisfaction before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: A comparative study
    (Elsevier, 2024-02-20) Vulturius, Saskia; Budd, Lucy; Ison, Stephen; Quddus, Mohammed
    The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the world's commercial aviation industry was unprecedented. National lockdowns and border closures effectively prohibited passenger air travel. Airlines responded by reducing operations, parking aircraft and making staff, including pilots, redundant. This research aims to examine the impact of COVID-19 on commercial airline pilots' job satisfaction before and during the pandemic and identify the workplace factors that affect it. Empirical data was gathered via an online survey which was distributed to members of three commercial airline pilot unions in Europe and Australasia in November 2021. 346 complete responses were received. Using Herzberg's 16 workplace factors as a theoretical frame for the survey and subsequent analysis, the findings showed that, overall, job satisfaction decreased during the pandemic. The largest effect sizes were observed for Salary, Job Security and Working Conditions while the smallest effect sizes were observed for Impacts on Personal Life, Responsibility and Recognition. The importance of effective communication between airline management and pilots was highlighted. The findings and recommendations regarding employee compensation, benefits and support packages are of relevance not only to airlines but also to other transport and economic sectors facing future disruptive events.
  • ItemEmbargo
    Crisis Management in English Local Government: The Limits of Resilience
    (2024-02-22) Arrieta, Tania; Davies, Jonathan S.
    Research on local government in the UK during the era of austerity has shown that the decisions taken by local councils to cope with financial stresses were often narrated through the discourse of ‘resilience’, referencing their capacity to innovate and transform services, while protecting service provision in core areas. This emphasis on ‘resilience’ focused on the deployment of strategies to overcome funding challenges. However, this earlier research did not question the longer-term risks, trade-offs and negative social implications associated with such decisions, and how, even in circumstances where these practices provided some ‘breathing space’, in the longer-term they risked adding even more strain to the system as a whole. This article fills an important research gap by considering four resilience strategies of two local authorities in England: Leicester and Nottingham. These four strategies are: savings, reserves, collaboration and investment. Applying a meso-level perspective and exploring resilience through the lens of crisis management, it asks in what ways and for whom resilience generates positive, zero and negative-sum outcomes. This research enhances our understanding of the resilience concept by reflecting on its limitations and the risks it poses for local government. It also reveals that, while the concept of ‘resilience’ has been much criticised for normalising crises and generally operating as part of a de-politicising vocabulary, research is lacking on how the practices of resilience produce positive, zero or negative-sum outcomes.
  • ItemEmbargo
    A Multi Objective Perspective to Satellite Design and Reliability Optimization
    (Elsevier, 2024-01-22) Tetik, Taha; Das, Gulesin Sena; Birgoren, Burak
    Development of a communication satellite project is highly complicated and expensive which costs a few hun dred million dollars depending on the mission in space. Once a satellite is launched into orbit, it has to operate in harsh environmental conditions including radiation, solar activity, meteorites, and extreme weather patterns. Since there is no possibility of physical maintenance intervention in space, reliability is a critical attribute for all space and satellite projects. Therefore, the redundancy philosophy and reliability measures are taken into ac count in the design phase of a satellite to prevent the loss of functionality in case of a failure in orbit. This study aims to optimize the payload design of a communication satellite by considering the system’s reliability, power consumption and cost simultaneously. Since these objectives are conflicting in their nature, a multi-objective optimization approach is proposed. We offer a systematic approach to the satellite design by determining the best redundancy strategy considering contradictory objectives and onboard constraints in the multibillion-dollar satellite industry. The proposed approach promotes trade-offs and sensitivity analyses between cost, power consumption and system reliability in the early design phase of satellites using Compromise Programming. By using different sets of weights for the objectives in our model, it is possible to address different types of satellites depending on their mission and priorities. Because of the NP-Hard characteristics of the reliability optimization problem and the nonlinear equation in the proposed model, the Simulated Annealing algorithm is utilized to solve the problem. As a case analysis, the implementation is carried out on the design of a communication satellite system with active hot-standby and warm-standby onboard redundancy schemes. Results reveal that huge savings in million dollars can be attained as a result of approximately 5% reduction in reliability.
  • Item
    Accountability in the environmental crisis: From microsocial practices to moral orders
    (Wiley, 2023-11-05) Lidskog, Rolf; Standring, Adam
    The global environmental crisis is the result of a complex web of causation and distributed agency, where not even the most powerful individual actors can be considered responsible nor remedy the situation alone. This has prompted multiple calls across societies for transformative social change. What role can accountability play in this context? Starting in the theoretical traditions of microsociology and pragmatic sociology, this article elaborates the role of accountability in social interactions. To provide an account that justifies an action or inaction is here understood as a process of social ordering, where accounts are assessed as acceptable only after they have been tested against higher normative principles. Microsocial practices are, in this way, linked to macrosocial order. The following section turns to the global environmental crisis, showing that the crisis raises normative as well as epistemic challenges. The complexity of the socio‐environmental situation makes it hard to know what should be done and opens normative orders and epistemic claims to contestation. This situation provides increased opportunities for strategic maneuvering to justify actions as well as opportunities to question social practices and social order. The article concludes by discussing the role of accountability in climate change. Accountability can serve as a mechanism to attach issues to the current environmental crisis and re‐embed decisions and practice in an environmental moral order. As part of a broader palette of instruments, rules and norms, accountability has an important function to play in transforming society towards sustainability.
  • Item
    Utilizing China's capacity in everything the West did not provide to Iran ( Part 1 )
    (Iran Diplomacy, 2020-08-24) Nasirpourosgoei, Seyed Navid
    Seyd Navid Nasirpourosgoei, in a note on Iranian diplomacy, writes: As one of the world's most significant holders of gas, oil, and mineral resources, Iran (which the United States and Western countries do not have control over as rivals to China) can serve as a reliable supplier for China's future energy needs. In return, China, possessing cutting-edge global technologies and advanced industries, can meet Iran's requirements for the development of industrial, commercial, military, and political infrastructures in the future—something Western governments have never provided to Iran, both before and after the 1979 Revolution.
  • Item
    The early emergence of ombuds systems in Japanese science universities
    (Oxford University Press, 2024-01-04) Brummer, Matthew; Bamkin, Sam
    Ombuds systems in higher education institutes have become increasingly commonplace in North America and Europe, yet there remains a dearth of studies that examine dispute resolution systems in Asia. This article examines the case of Japan, a veritable technology powerhouse that adopted its first organizational ombuds offices in 2019 and 2021 at two leading science universities: Okinawa Institute of Technology and Kyushu Institute of Technology. We assess why these were established, how the change came about, and with what remit the offices are entrusted. We find that policy transfer from abroad occurred in both cases, yet with considerably different degrees of obligation and volitional lesson-drawing, and to considerably different ends. Additionally, policy entrepreneurs played key roles in agenda setting and institutionalization. Nearly all interviewees in this study raised the issue of gender harassment as an enduring challenge for which new conflict resolution mechanisms are needed. The two newly introduced ombuds offices therefore represent one possible model for leveling inequalities in the science landscape.
  • Item
    When Abusive Supervision Increases Workplace Deviance: The Moderating Role of Psychological Safety and Organizational Identification
    (The Lahore Journal of Business, 2023-09-30) Arshad, Mamoona
    This study offers new insights into the moderators between abusive supervision and workplace deviance. Building on the conservation-of-resources theory, the study introduces coping resources as moderators between abusive supervision and the two dimensions of workplace deviance, that is, interpersonal and organizational deviance. The study identifies psychological safety, an intrapsychic state, as a moderator between abusive supervision and interpersonal deviance. Similarly, the research tests organizational identification as a moderator between abusive supervision and organizational deviance. The study tests the hypotheses by collecting two sources of data as well as cross-sectional data from various Pakistani organizations. The two-source data from 122 supervisors-subordinate dyads provide support for the results. The study found that low psychological safety strengthens the positive link between abusive supervision and interpersonal deviance. Besides, a low level of identification with an organization strengthens the positive association between abusive supervision and organizational deviance. Thus, the study extends the literature by highlighting the importance of several personal and coping resources for employees at work.
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    Doing curriculum reform: what allows expert practitioners to mediate policy enactment in Japan?
    (World Education Research Association, 2023-11-22) Bamkin, Sam
    This presentation considers the role of professional (educational/pedagogic) knowledge in the enactment of policy during neoliberal times. Education policymaking in Japan, like elsewhere, is changing. Over the past twenty years, the central government has displaced the Ministry of Education as the driver of education policy, including most recently in curriculum policy. However, in Japanese curriculum reform, professional knowledge continues to inform how policy is understood and enacted on the ground, alongside the imperative for performative enactment. My recent research, based on two years’ fieldwork in and around eight schools, questionnaire survey data, textbook databases and elite interviews, shows that expert practitioners can leverage this knowledge to mediate how curriculum policy is enacted in compulsory education. This presentation re-examines these findings from a comparative perspective to consider the particular structural mechanisms in the policymaking process and education system of Japan that facilitate the operation of professional knowledge in policy enactment, and how they are changing. It further comments on the extent to which the Japanese data questions the universality of well-established theory of ‘policy work’ (e.g. Stephen Ball and colleagues, 2012) grounded in data collected in the Anglo-American contexts.
  • ItemEmbargo
    Small Airport Adoption of Environmental Practices – A Managerial Perspective
    (Henry Stewart, 2023) Harley, Grace; Timmis, Andrew; Budd, Lucy
  • ItemEmbargo
    Decarbonising airports: An examination of UK Airports’ Net Zero Targets
    (Taylor and Francis, 2024) Budd, Lucy; Kambari, Mehdi; Ison, Stephen
  • ItemOpen Access
    An Exploratory Study of Mobility Hub Implementation
    (Elsevier, 2023-08-03) Arnold, Tom; Frost, Matthew; Timmis, Andrew; Dale, Simon; Ison, Stephen
    Mobility Hubs (MH) have been developed, as multimodal interchanges focussed on public transport, active travel modes, and shared mobility, with the aim of encouraging more sustainable forms of travel. There is emergent evidence of MH development and implementation across an increasing number of international cities often with different interpretations of the concept. The aim of this paper is to analyse the decision-making factors behind MH implementation. 11 semi-structured interviews were conducted with transport professionals involved with MH implementation in the United States, mainland Europe and the United Kingdom. The interviews revealed common elements in the decision-making process categorised under four headings, namely: Purpose, Process, Place and Performance referred to as the 4 Ps. These are used as explanatory factors to understand the variety of MH implementation globally. Furthermore, they have utility as a decision-making guide for prospective cities considering MH implementation. This enables exploration of how MHs develop and are implemented responding to the specific aims, opportunities, challenges, and contexts of a move from private transport to more active and shared modes of mobility.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Mobility Hubs: Review and Future Research Direction
    (Sage, 2022-07-30) Arnold, Tom; Frost, Matthew; Timmis, Andrew; Dale, Simon; Ison, Stephen
    Globally, cities face a range of transport-related environmental, social, and economic challenges, not least congestion, air pollution, and promotion of sustainable modes of public transport. Mobility hubs (MHs) have been identified as a mechanism to aid the move toward a sustainable transport network and are at various stages of implementation in cities throughout the world. The growing prevalence of MH schemes highlights the requirement for a holistic overview of MH networks to ascertain their characteristics and inform policy direction. Consequently, this study presents a review of current MH deployment and literature, with the aim of examining this global phenomenon and identifying a future research agenda. The study combines a comprehensive review of web searches with gray literature and a limited number of articles from academic journals. Twenty locations, at different stages of development and implementation, were identified as examples to be reviewed and analyzed, thereby providing a context for the review. Subsequently, four themes have emerged: objectives of MHs, format, location, and operational factors. Key findings include the importance of stakeholder engagement in design and location choices, the significance of branding, and connection with existing travel infrastructure including public transport and active travel. Additionally, the provision of amenities is common to MH schemes because it promotes usage and integration into the local landscape. From this detailed review of the state of MHs, a future research agenda has been identified, including further defining MHs, understanding the origin and applicability of MH objectives, considering day-to-day operations, policy transfer implications, and further evaluations of single and network MHs.