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Item Open Access1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Linked Metabolomics Investigations of Broiler Poultry and Human Saliva(De Montfort University, 2019-08) Parmar, Devki1H NMR-linked metabolomics was employed to investigate blood plasma and breast meat muscle from broiler poultry for quality assessment. The purpose of this research is to further explore the metabolomics profile of poultry breast meat muscle and plasma and comprehensively identify their metabolic components. NMR spectroscopy was also used to further investigate as to whether different ultimate pH levels of water would influence the metabolic profile. A total of 10 meat muscle samples were processed and the resulting 1H NMR spectra were elucidated, identifying a total of 18 metabolites. A total of 49 plasma samples were processed for 1H NMR analysis, where 35 metabolites were identified and confirmed. These metabolites were cross-referenced with metabolic quality indicators from previous studies and it was found that the group of samples treated by WET Engineering showed higher levels of these metabolites and therefore deemed higher quality. The application of multivariate statistical analysis also showed a significant difference between treatment groups. Therefore, highlighting that changes in the pH of water given to broiler poultry can indeed have an influence on their metabolic profile. 1H NMR-linked metabolomics was also employed in order to quantify ionic magnesium and calcium salivary concentrations via NMR characterisation of their chelation complexes with EDTA. At total of 82 samples were processed for 1H NMR analysis and metabolic compounds were identified. Concentrations of ionic levels were measured for each sample and quantified via calibration curve, giving average ionic concentrations of 212 μMol/L for magnesium and 932 μMol/L for calcium. These results were comparable to those levels found in previous studies, using alternative methodologies such as AAS. The repeatability and reliability of the technique was also investigated by preparing and measuring each sample in triplicate and then re-measuring these triplicate samples after a period of 48 hours. It was found that there was a very low standard deviation of concentrations between triplicate measurements. Giving deviations on average of 22μMol/L for magnesium and 36μMol/L for calcium. However, after a period of 48 hours, when samples were re-measured, they showed on average a standard deviation that was twice as high for magnesium and four times higher for calcium. The overall objective of this thesis was to demonstrate the range of research that can be done, when using 1H NMR-linked metabolomics for the analysis of biological fluids. In this case, the research areas of agriculture and oral health were chosen. Item Open Access3D numerical modelling and manipulation of a shoe last.(De Montfort University, 1998) Gordeyeva, Olga V.As global competition continues to increase causing market windows to shrink and product life cycles shorten, manufacturers today can no longer function without advanced design tools. These market pressures dictate that designers must embrace new, faster and better design technologies than ever before if they are to remain competitive. This is especially true in the shoe industry with the employment of up-to-date methods of design and manufacture. The development of modem CAD/CAM systems, the availability of powerful hardware at reasonable cost and vast improvements in colour graphics capabilities have made the automation of the footwear design process feasible at low cost. All of this economically justifies the creation of a system for direct shoe last design without a prototype model last. A specific onscreen methodology of a shoe last design directly from individual anthropometric data has been proposed and evaluated. A numerical methodology for onscreen visualisation with application of a new scheme of segmentation of the last surface and further manipulation of the last elements in order to create new last styles have been developed. In order to achieve this, the principles of shaping the last, the laws governing its deformation when changing the heel height and the list of possible modifications to its shape have been defined. Five global manipulation procedures have been implemented, in particular those that relate to changing the heel height. Special software has been written to visualise the results. Experimentation has proved the validity of the approach. Lasts of similar style but with different heel heights were measured and numerically modelled to compare with computer generated and modified last models. The accuracy proved to be within the limits of practical and traditional constraints. Item Open Access3D Printing on Textile Fabrics Based on Material Extrusion(De Montfort University, 2020-10) Alsabhi, Randa3D print technology has been developed rapidly since 1984. Now there are many types of 3D printing equipment and different techniques available to create a 3D printed object using additive layer by layer processes. 3 popular printing technologies are SLS (Selective Laser Sintering), FDM (Fused Deposition Modelling) and SLA (Stereolithography). Among them, FDM printing technology involves a process where the thermoplastic material is melted and extruded through printing nozzle in a pattern to create the designed object layer by layer. Small desktop FDM equipment becomes popular for domestic uses to create objects due to its low price and easy access to different printing materials. Currently 3D print techniques are extensively used for producing the prototype of products and their designs in manufacturing industry. 3D print technology has also been used to produce textile weaving or knitting structure of materials but they are not comfortable to wear daily. There is limited research and publications for application of 3D printing on textiles or integration of 3D printing into textile fabrics. The current research aims to develop 3D printing technology on textile materials to create textile surface design with specific functionality and to exploit the potential commercial markets for 3D printed textile materials through surveys. The technology of 3D printing to be developed on textile fabrics in the current research was mainly based on FDM (Fused Deposition Modelling) using the Ultimaker 3D printer. Printing parameters for textile printing play an important role especially for the adhesion between printed patterns and the surface of the fabrics. The current research resulted in the development of a method for assessing the attachment strength in the interface between printed object and surface of textile fabrics and the understanding of the processes to achieve strong attachment of 3D printed patterns on the fabrics. A wide range of thermoplastic filaments are available for FDM based 3D printing for product design. Characterising the printed materials from 3D printing filaments can identify the properties of each filament in term of the hardness and flexibility of the filaments for their applications. In the current work, different filaments (PLA, Nylon,ABS, BendLay, TPU-A, TPU-B and PLA Conductive) were assessed for their application on textile fabrics. Durable to wash and re-usability of garments are the desired properties for sustainable textile material. 3D printed garments need to meet the requirement of durability to wash. In the current work, the quality and the performance of 3D printing on textile fabrics were investigated in term of dimensional stability and sufficient attachment of the printed patterns on the fabrics via visual and haptic inspection through 10 washing cycles. The current work also demonstrated the ability to create different design patters in 3D on the fabrics. FDM technology allow the development of novel patterns and constructed patters to be printed on textile fabrics that would be impossible to create with conventional methods. High quality of 3D patterns with precise and detail design can be printed on textile fabrics in strong attachment durable to wash. The current research from the questionnaire survey also shows could the potential for the commercial markets towards 3D surface patterning on textile fabrics created by 3D printing in fashion industry. Item Open Access3D-based Advanced Machine Service Support(De Montfort University, 2006-01) Ho, Yeo SanIn the face of today's unpredictable and fluctuating global market, there have been trends in industry towards wider adoption of more advanced and flexible new generation manufacturing systems. These have brought about new challenges to manufacturing equipment builders/suppliers in respect of satisfying ever-increasing customers' requirements for such advanced manufacturing systems. To stay competitive, in addition to supplying high quality equipment, machine builders/suppliers must also be capable of providing their customers with cost-effective, efficient and comprehensive service support, throughout the equipment's lifecycle. This research study has been motivated by the relatively unexplored potential of integrating 3D virtual technology with various machine service support tools/techniques to address the aforementioned challenges. The hypothesis formulated for this study is that a 3D-based virtual environment can be used as an integration platform to improve service support for new generation manufacturing systems. In order to ensure the rigour of the study, it has been initiated with a two-stage (iterative) literature review, consisting of: a preliminary review for the identification of practical problems/main issues related to the area of machine service support and in-depth reviews for the identification of research problems/questions and potential solutions. These were then followed by iterations of intensive research activities, consisting of: requirements identification, concept development, prototype implementation, testing and exploration, reflection and feedback. The process has been repeated and revised continuously until satisfactory results, required for answering the identified research problems/questions, were obtained. The main focus of this study is exploring how a 3D-based virtual environment can be used as an integration platform for supporting a more cost-effective and comprehensive strategy for improving service support for new generation manufacturing systems. One of the main outcomes of this study is the proposal of a conceptual framework for a novel 3D-based advanced machine service support strategy and a reference architecture for a corresponding service support system, for allowing machine builders/suppliers to: (1) provide more cost-effective remote machine maintenance support, and (2) provide more efficient and comprehensive extended service support during the equipment's life cycle. The proposed service support strategy advocates the tight integration of conventional (consisting of mainly machine monitoring, diagnostics, prognostics and maintenance action decision support) and extended (consisting of mainly machine re-configuration, upgrade and expansion support) service support functions. The proposed service support system is based on the integration of a 3D-based virtual environment with the equipment control system, a re-configurable automated service support system, coupled with a maintenance-support-tool/strategy support environment and an equipment re-configuration/upgrade/expansion support environment, in a network/lntenet framework. The basic concepts, potential benefits and limitations of the proposed strategy/ system have been explored via a prototype based on a laboratory-scale test bed. The prototype consists of a set of integrated modular network-ready software tools consisting of: (1) an integrated 20/30 visualisation and analysis module, (2) support tools library modules, (3) communication modules and (4) a set of modular and re-configurable automated data logging, maintenance and re-configuration support modules. A number of test cases based on various machine service support scenarios, have been conducted using the prototype. The experimentation has shown the potential and feasibility (technical implementation aspects) of the proposed 3D-based approach. This research study has made an original contribution to knowledge in the field of machine service support. It has contributed a novel approach of using a 3D-based virtual environment as an integration platform for improving the capability of machine builders/suppliers in providing more cost-effective and comprehensive machine service support for complex new generation manufacturing systems. Several important findings have resulted from this work in particular with respect to how various 20/30 visualisation environments are integrated with machine service support tools/techniques for improving service support for complex manufacturing systems. A number of aspects have also been identified for future work. Item Open AccessAbsorbing the Worlds of Others: Ruth Prawer Jhabvala’s Adapted Screenplays(De Montfort University, 2020-06) Fryer, LauraDespite being a prolific and well-decorated adapter and screenwriter, the screenplays of Ruth Prawer Jhabvala are largely overlooked in adaptation studies. This is likely, in part, because her life and career are characterised by the paradox of being an outsider on the inside: whether that be as a European writing in and about India, as a novelist in film or as a woman in industry. The aims of this thesis are threefold: to explore the reasons behind her neglect in criticism, to uncover her contributions to the film adaptations she worked on and to draw together the fields of screenwriting and adaptation studies. Surveying both existing academic studies in film history, screenwriting and adaptation in Chapter 1 -- as well as publicity materials in Chapter 2 -- reveals that screenwriting in general is on the periphery of considerations of film authorship. In Chapter 2, I employ Sandra Gilbert’s and Susan Gubar’s notions of ‘the madwoman in the attic’ and ‘the angel in the house’ to portrayals of screenwriters, arguing that Jhabvala purposely cultivates an impression of herself as the latter -- a submissive screenwriter, of no threat to patriarchal or directorial power -- to protect herself from any negative attention as the former. However, the archival materials examined in Chapter 3 which include screenplay drafts, reveal her to have made significant contributions to problem-solving, characterisation and tone. I argue that she develops themes pertinent to her and in Chapter 4 I posit outsider characters in particular as sites of her authorship. In the final chapter I explore the collaborative nature of the working environment which made these contributions possible. I adapt Kamilla Elliott’s incarnational concept of adaptation to reincarnation in order to argue that adaptation and screenwriting are both continual, collaborative processes. Segments of Chapters 2 and 5 have been included in published articles and feature in the appendices: ‘A room with many views: Ruth Prawer Jhabvala’s and Andrew Davies’ adapted screenplays for A Room with a View (1985, 2007)’; and ‘Screenwriting, adaptation and reincarnation: Ruth Prawer Jhabvala’s self-adapted screenplays’. Item Open AccessAcademic motivation, aspirations, choice and expectations of sixth-form students and their parents in state and private schools(De Montfort University, 2004) Lewis, Sarah Item Open AccessAcademics’ Adoption and Usage of Learning Management Systems in Saudi Arabia’s Universities(De Montfort University, 2015-04) Alshammari, Mohammed S.Learning Management Systems (LMS) have become a common feature in contemporary Higher Education institutions worldwide. LMS literature shows that the level of interest and/or knowledge among academics towards the importance and usefulness of these systems, and the opportunities they can bring to the teaching process are key factors affecting the degree of use of LMS in HE. To date, most of these studies have taken place in the context of developed countries, and there is only limited research in other areas. In recent years, LMS have been adopted widely in Saudi Arabia’s Higher Education sector, however, there are no strong and detailed data regarding the subject in this context, which could impede future developments. On the other hand, academics were chosen as the main focus of this investigation because studies have revealed that they have the most vital role in promoting and enhancing the use of LMS. Therefore, this research investigates academics’ adoption and usage of LMS in Saudi Arabia’s universities; it aims to understand the adoption conditions and identify what factors truly affect the adoption process and to what level are the systems being used and why. The investigation was guided by Grounded Theory research principles. Initially, a review of the literature identified the nature of LMS along with the issues confronting academics when they are trying to use it to its full potential in supporting the delivery of their courses. Afterwards, questionnaires were employed to further explore the phenomenon in its examined context, i.e. Saudi higher education. The generated data and concepts were then used to guide the research process and to develop interview questions. The interviews were carried out at three Saudi universities with a range of stakeholders, which signified the primary data source in this investigation. Analysis revealed that LMS did not emerge as a well-established component of academics’ activities in Saudi universities despite the positive view respondents expressed towards it. Findings also explained why LMS was either considered a secondary method to support face-to-face teaching, or under-utilised in fully online courses. Furthermore, findings revealed the primary factors influencing academics’ level of use of LMS. Moreover, there were issues identified in relation to the academics’ development and training for LMS, which had a significant effect on the academics’ level of use of LMS. Findings were then integrated into a substantive theory and a theoretical model, which represents the research primary outcome. The theoretical outcomes offer abstract explanation of the phenomenon about adopting innovatory systems in Saudi universities, LMS in this instance. In conclusion, suggestions for improving the current provision of LMS in Saudi Universities are made. Overall, this study provided an insight into the environment surrounding the early adoption phases of LMS in Saudi universities, which offers a better understanding of the phenomenon. Subsequently, this will help enhance the adoption process in current contexts and assist in the better future utilisation of these systems in similar situations. Item Open AccessAccelerated optimisation methods for low-carbon building design(De Montfort University, 2014-03) Tresidder, EsmondThis thesis presents an analysis of the performance of optimisation using Kriging surrogate models on low-carbon building design problems. Their performance is compared with established genetic algorithms operating without a surrogate on a range of different types of building-design problems. The advantages and disadvantages of a Kriging approach, and their particular relevance to low-carbon building design optimisation, are tested and discussed. Scenarios in which Kriging methods are most likely to be of use, and scenarios where, conversely, they may be dis- advantageous compared to other methods for reducing the computational cost of optimisation, such as parallel computing, are highlighted. Kriging is shown to be able, in some cases, to find designs of comparable performance in fewer main-model evaluations than a stand-alone genetic algorithm method. However, this improvement is not robust, and in several cases Kriging required many more main-model evaluations to find comparable designs, especially in the case of design problems with discrete variables, which are common in low-carbon building design. Furthermore, limitations regarding the extent to which Kriging optimisa- tions can be accelerated using parallel computing resources mean that, even in the scenarios in which Kriging showed the greatest advantage, a stand-alone genetic algorithm implemented in parallel would be likely to find comparable designs more quickly. In light of this it is recommended that, for most lowcarbon building design problems, a stand-alone genetic algorithm is the most suitable optimisation method. Two novel methods are developed to improve the performance of optimisation algorithms on low-carbon building design problems. The first takes advantage of variables whose impact can be quickly calculated without re-running an expensive dynamic simulation, in order to dramatically increase the number of designs that can be explored within a given computing budget. The second takes advantage of objectives that can be !Keywords To Be Included For Additional Search Power: Optimisation, optimization, Kriging, meta-models, metamodels, low-energy design ! "2 calculated without a dynamic simulation in order to filter out designs that do not meet constraints in those objectives and focus the use of computationally expensive dynamic simulations on feasible designs. Both of these methods show significant improvement over standard methods in terms of the quality of designs found within a given dynamic-simulation budget. Item Open AccessAcceleration Techniques for Photo Realistic Computer Generated Integral Images(De Montfort University, 2004-04) Youssef, Osama HassanThe research work presented in this thesis has approached the task of accelerating the generation of photo-realistic integral images produced by integral ray tracing. Ray tracing algorithm is a computationally exhaustive algorithm, which spawns one ray or more through each pixel of the pixels forming the image, into the space containing the scene. Ray tracing integral images consumes more processing time than normal images. The unique characteristics of the 3D integral camera model has been analysed and it has been shown that different coherency aspects than normal ray tracing can be investigated in order to accelerate the generation of photo-realistic integral images. The image-space coherence has been analysed describing the relation between rays and projected shadows in the scene rendered. Shadow cache algorithm has been adapted in order to minimise shadow intersection tests in integral ray tracing. Shadow intersection tests make the majority of the intersection tests in ray tracing. Novel pixel-tracing styles are developed uniquely for integral ray tracing to improve the image-space coherence and the performance of the shadow cache algorithm. Acceleration of the photo-realistic integral images generation using the image-space coherence information between shadows and rays in integral ray tracing has been achieved with up to 41 % of time saving. Also, it has been proven that applying the new styles of pixel-tracing does not affect of the scalability of integral ray tracing running over parallel computers. The novel integral reprojection algorithm has been developed uniquely through geometrical analysis of the generation of integral image in order to use the tempo-spatial coherence information within the integral frames. A new derivation of integral projection matrix for projecting points through an axial model of a lenticular lens has been established. Rapid generation of 3D photo-realistic integral frames has been achieved with a speed four times faster than the normal generation. Item Open AccessAccess Network Selection in Heterogeneous Networks(De Montfort University, 2008) Alkhawlani, MohammedThe future Heterogeneous Wireless Network (HWN) is composed of multiple Radio Access Technologies (RATs), therefore new Radio Resource Management (RRM) schemes and mechanisms are necessary to benefit from the individual characteristics of each RAT and to exploit the gain resulting from jointly considering the whole set of the available radio resources in each RAT. These new RRM schemes have to support mobile users who can access more than one RAT alternatively or simultaneously using a multi-mode terminal. An important RRM consideration for overall HWN stability, resource utilization, user satisfaction, and Quality of Service (QoS) provisioning is the selection of the most optimal and promising Access Network (AN) for a new service request. The RRM mechanism that is responsible for selecting the most optimal and promising AN for a new service request in the HWN is called the initial Access Network Selection (ANS). This thesis explores the issue of ANS in the HWN. Several ANS solutions that attempt to increase the user satisfaction, the operator benefits, and the QoS are designed, implemented, and evaluated. The thesis first presents a comprehensive foundation for the initial ANS in the H\VN. Then, the thesis analyses and develops a generic framework for solving the ANS problem and any other similar optimized selection problem. The advantages and strengths of the developed framework are discussed. Combined Fuzzy Logic (FL), Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) and Genetic Algorithms (GA) are used to give the developed framework the required scalability, flexibility, and simplicity. The developed framework is used to present and design several novel ANS algorithms that consider the user, the operator, and the QoS view points. Different numbers of RATs, MCDM tools, and FL inference system types are used in each algorithm. A suitable simulation models over the HWN with a new set of performance evolution metrics for the ANS solution are designed and implemented. The simulation results show that the new algorithms have better and more robust performance over the random, the service type, and the terminal speed based selection algorithms that are used as reference algorithms. Our novel algorithms outperform the reference algorithms in- terms of the percentage of the satisfied users who are assigned to the network of their preferences and the percentage of the users who are assigned to networks with stronger signal strength. The new algorithms maximize the operator benefits by saving the high cost network resources and utilizing the usage of the low cost network resources. Usually better results are achieved by assigning the weights using the GA optional component in the implemented algorithms. Item Open AccessAccountability in the context of civilization change in China(De Montfort University, 2015-10) Margerison, JohnThe purpose of this thesis is to contribute to the understanding of accountability in the context of civilization change in China. Using a Foucaultian epistemic framework and archaeological method, data has been gathered from four sources: textual, interviews, case studies and surveys. Each source has been considered in terms of the viability of the modern episteme and the possibility of episteme change to ecological civilization taking place in China. Also the actors in the sustainability accountability network have been identified along with the key contingencies that could lead to changes in accountability in China. Based on the data collected there is strong evidence that the existing industrial civilization in China is seen to be unsustainable. Also that there are particular contingencies in place in China that make episteme change both likely and perhaps already taking place. The key contingency in this research is the metaphysical continuum based on harmony ideas in ancient Chinese philosophy. As a result there are strong grounds for predicting that new forms of accountability will be based around groupings of organizations in provinces, geographical areas (river basins) and regions, feeding up to accountability for sustainability at national and supra-national levels. Practically this research has opened up the possibility of accountability in China that could seriously address sustainability issues rather than the typical Western approaches based on empty rhetoric to improve reputation and legitimacy. This research has operationalized Foucault’s ideas on episteme change empirically in China. As such it represents an original contribution to research on sustainability and accountability responses thereto. Item Open AccessAccurate temperature measurements on semiconductor devices.(De Montfort University, 2010) Hopper, RichardSelf-heating can have a detrimental effect on the performance and reliability of high power microwave devices. In this work, the thermal performance of the gallium arsenide (GaAs) Gunn diode was studied. Infrared (IR) thermal microscopy was used to measure the peak operating temperature of the graded-gap structured device. Temperature measurements were experimentally validated using micro-thermocouple probing and compared to values obtained from a standard 1D thermal resistance model. Thermal analysis of the conventionally structured Gunn diode was also undertaken using high resolution micro-Raman temperature profiling, IR thermal microscopy and electro/thermal finite element modeling. The accuracy of conventional IR temperature measurements, made on semiconductor devices, was investigated in detail. Significant temperature errors were shown to occur in IR temperature measurements made on IR transparent semiconductors layers and low emissivity/highly reflective metals. A new technique, employing spherical carbon microparticles, was developed to improve the measurement accuracy on such surfaces. The new ‘IR microparticle’ technique can be used with existing IR microscopes and potentially removes the need to coat a device with a high emissivity layer, which causes damage and heat spreading. Item Open AccessAchieving deep carbon emission reductions in existing social housing: The case of Peabody(De Montfort University, 2009-09) Reeves, AndrewAs part of the UK’s effort to combat climate change, deep reductions in carbon emissions will be required from existing social housing. This thesis explores the viability of achieving such a goal through a case-study approach, focusing on Peabody, a large housing association operating in London. A model was developed for Peabody’s existing housing stock that quantifies the impacts of technical carbon reduction interventions on stock carbon emissions, Peabody’s expenditure and residents’ fuel bills for the period up to 2030. A participant observation study, conducted from 2006 to 2009, explored the impact of contextual factors influencing the viability of Peabody carrying out the considered technical interventions. The model study found that the Greater London Authority’s target of achieving 60% emission cuts by 2025 could be achieved, but only through extensive stock refurbishment, including a widespread use of solid wall insulation. An external context of substantial reductions in the carbon intensity of the national grid and constrained resident demand for energy is also required. Even where considerable financial support for refurbishment from Government was assumed, the model provided evidence of a funding gap of tens of millions of pounds which would need to be bridged if the required measures were to be carried out. The participant observation study found that the prohibitive cost of carrying out carbon reduction measures is the key barrier currently holding back progress. Other significant issues are related to Government policy, including the inability to raise income from residents to offset refurbishment spending, and the lack of a long term framework to drive action to reduce emissions from existing UK housing. By coupling an analysis of technical interventions with analysis of their financial and political viability, this thesis demonstrates that the achievement of deep emission cuts from Peabody’s existing stock is certainly possible, but requires changes in Government policy and increased efforts from all stakeholders concerned if it is to come to pass. Item Open AccessAchieving Fair Exchange and Customer Anonymity for Online Products in Electronic Commerce(De Montfort University, 2014-06) Alqahtani, Fahad AliIn the recent years, e-commerce has gained much importance. Traditional commerce (in which case the customer physically goes to the merchant’s shop, purchases goods and/or services and makes a payment) is slowly being replaced with e-commerce and more people tend to prefer doing their shopping online. One of the main reasons for this attraction is the convenience the e-commerce provides. Customers can choose from a lot of different merchants at the convenience of their homes or while travelling by avoiding the hassle and stress of traditional shopping. However, e-commerce has lots of challenges. One key challenge is trust as transactions take place across territories and there are various legal & regulatory issues that govern these transactions. Various protocols and underlying e-commerce technologies help in the provision of this trust. One way to establish trust is to ensure fair exchange. There is also a question about traceability of transactions and customers’ need for privacy. This is provided by anonymity – making sure that the transactions are untraceable and that the customers’ personal information is kept secret. Thus the aim of this research is to propose a protocol that provides fair exchange and anonymity to the transacting parties by making use of a Trusted Third Party. The research is also aimed at ensuring payment security and making use of a single payment token to enhance the efficiency of the protocol. The proposed protocol consists of pre-negotiation, negotiation, withdrawal, purchase and arbitration phases. The analysis of the protocol proves that throughout all the phases of the e-commerce transaction, it is able to provide fair exchange and complete anonymity to the transacting parties. Anonymity provides the privacy of customers’ data and ensures that all Personally Identifiable Information of the transacting parties are kept hidden to avoid misuse. The protocol proposed is model checked to ensure that it is able to show that the fair exchange feature is satisfied. It is implemented using Java to show that it is ready-to-use and not just a theoretical idea but something that can be used in the real-world scenario. The security features of the protocol is taken care of by making sure that appropriate cryptographic algorithms and protocols are used to ensure provision of confidentiality and integrity. This research explores those areas that have not been covered by other researchers with the idea that there is still a lot of scope for improvement in the current research. It identifies these v opportunities and the ‘research gaps’ and focuses on overcoming these gaps. The current e-commerce protocols do not cover all the desirable characteristics and it is important to address these characteristics as they are vital for the growth of e-commerce technologies. The novelty of the protocol lies in the fact that it provides anonymity as well as fair exchange using a Trusted Third Party that is entirely trustworthy unlike certain protocols where the trusted third party is semi-trusted. The proposed protocol makes use of symmetric key cryptography wherever possible to ensure that it is efficient and light weight. The number of messages is significantly reduced. This overcomes the drawback identified in various other protocols which are cumbersome due to the number of messages. Anonymity is based on blind signature method of Chaum. It has been identified that usage of other methods such as pseudo-identifiers have resulted in the inefficiency of the protocol due to the bottlenecks created by these identifiers. It also ensures anonymity can never be compromised unlike certain protocols whereby an eavesdropper can find out the customer’s identity as the customer is required to disclose his/her public key during transactions. Further to this, the protocol also provides immunity against message replay attacks. Finally, the protocol always assumes that one or more parties can always be dishonest which is unlike certain protocols that assume only one party can be dishonest at any point. This ensures that all scenarios are taken into consideration and two parties cannot conspire against the other thus compromising on the fairness of the protocol. Detailed analysis, implementation, verification and evaluation of the protocol is done to ensure that the research is able to prove that the protocol has been carefully designed and the key goals of fair exchange and anonymity. All scenarios are taken into consideration to prove that the protocol will indeed satisfy all criteria. The research thus expects that the protocol could be implemented in real-life scenarios and finds a great potential in the e-commerce field. Item Open AccessAcousmatic Storytelling: A compositional approach(De Montfort University, 2015-02) Amelidis, PanagiotisThe purpose of this research is to explore the idea of relating storytelling with acousmatic music in the creation of a hybrid vehicle for transmitting stories, to develop a compositional methodology derived from the exploration of the synergy between storytelling techniques and acousmatic practice and to deliver works, which facilitate reinvention of the experience and memory for listeners. While particular attention is focused on acousmatic works, the research presented in this exegesis also explores the theory of storytelling in more general terms, with evaluation of its potential to inform the development of acousmatic works. This thesis is inspired by the work of specialists of storytelling theory (e.g. Todorov, Le Poidevin and Davidson) and their views on the elements of storytelling, and continues to investigate storytelling elements in the repertoire of acousmatic music and the use of the voice as a means of imparting a story with composers such as L. Ferrari, H. Westerkamp, D. Derbyshire, C. Calon and J. Young providing especially pertinent examples. The hypothesis and theoretical analysis were practically tested and implemented in the five acousmatic works created for this particular project. This research reveals the potential for acousmatic creativity to reach new audiences (in terms of age, culture, nationality) by blending culture-specific storytelling with acousmatic practice, proposing in that way a renewal of the musical vernacular of acousmatic music. By integrating archival recordings, interviews, transformed sounds, and referential sounds, the microphone and recorded medium became a time machine, ‘thought capturer’ and a conduit for conveying cultural information. All these elements combined with the sonic world composed in the studio are creating a hybrid form of acousmatic work, a subgenre which I define as acousmatic storytelling. The notion of musicality, the definition of acousmatic storytelling as well as concepts and, terms and definitions of acousmatic music are presented in Chapter 1. The ! 3! portfolio was created having as a conceptual basis elements and techniques of storytelling and story construction which are presented in Chapter 2, together with an examination of works identifying ways in which acousmatic composers have used storytelling within their own work. In Chapter 3 the creative approach applied in the works of this portfolio is presented, both as concepts and methodology. This research is useful for all those working with recorded sound because it offers an approach to sonic creativity based on storytelling techniques, and provides a universal perspective of the composer who can now be seen as historian, journalist, author as well as musician. It also provides the means to engage a broader audience with the practice of acousmatic music. Item Open AccessActing in Time: Transport Nurses optimising critically ill patients for transfer to a regional ECMO centre. A Grounded Theory Study(De Montfort University, 2020-05) Palmer, LynRegionalisation and centralisation of Intensive Care Units, coupled with demographic changes, have resulted in an increased demand for inter-hospital transport. The Conventional ventilatory support vs Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for Severe Adult Respiratory Failure Trial (CESAR), validated the use of ECMO in the UK for critically ill adults. The H1N1 Influenza A epidemic in 2009, led to four more adult ECMO centres being designated, and more recently the World Health Organisation (WHO, 2020), recommended ECMO for eligible patients in the COVID-19 pandemic. A critical incident occurred while I was undertaking the transport of a critically ill adult, which led to the unplanned use of mobile ECMO, still in its infancy. Seeking answers to the questions raised from this incident a research proposal was formed in order to investigate what could be learnt from the actions of transport nurses in promoting stability and preventing deterioration of patient acuity during the transport process. A grounded theory approach was used to try and understand the processes and strategies that experienced transport nurses used in optimising their patients’ stability and generate a substantive theory in explaining their timely actions. Under a pragmatic paradigm, this grounded theory study utilised the methods of Retrospective Medical Records Review and Interviews. Quantitative random sampling of 50 patients retrieved to a regional ECMO centre, allowed the collection of vital physiological variables staged over three time points. Data analysis showed that two out of the eight variables demonstrated a statistical significance in deterioration. Qualitative unstructured interviews from six transport nurses revealed a variety of activities, proactive and reactive, cognitive and physical, with overwhelming attention to time constraints, employed to benefit the patient. An explanatory theory was identified. Acting in Time encapsulated extant theory from the Secure Base Model (SBM) in fostering studies, and the Actor-Network Theory (ANT), from sociological literature. Acting in Time made overt the core virtues, practices, and skills of the transport nurse in aiming to reduce the risks associated will transport of the critically ill adult while striving to maintain patient stability. The study identified a growing need for centralisation, coordination, standardisation, audit, education and training for all those involved in transporting critically ill patients to a regional ECMO centre. It recommends that dedicated regional transport centres should be implemented for the transport of the adult critical care patient. A centralised database should be created for the import of data from the regional transport teams. Education for all nurses, not just transport nurses, needs to be available to deliver high quality care at any point of patient retrieval. A curriculum for transport education for nurses is outlined. This research reinforces and adds to the Intensive Care Society and Faculty of Intensive Care Medicine (ICS & FICM, 2019), and standards of education for nurses enhanced. Item Open AccessAn action research evaluation to understand and inform the role of the Integrated Care Pharmacist across health and social care(De Montfort University, 2018-12) Navti, PhyllisIntroduction A research study was commissioned to understand and inform the new role of an Integrated Care (IC) Pharmacist, founded to work as part of the health and social multidisciplinary team (MDT) within the IC program for East Leicestershire and Rutland Clinical Commissioning Group (ELR CCG). Aim The aim of the study was to understand and inform this new role of the IC Pharmacist for ELRCCG and how to develop and sustain such a role. Methods A participatory mixed methods research strategy, which aligns with pragmatism as a philosophy was used. The qualitative arm of the mixed methods was predominantly underpinned by phenomenology and included interviews with two IC patients and seven professionals who were a core part of the integrated MDT and one focus group. For the quantitative arm, key performance indicators(KPIs) documented in line with the sponsor evaluation policy were analysed. Findings The six themes derived from the qualitative methods were: teamwork; accessibility and visibility; resources and enablers; reflection on the role functions; Impact of the role and evaluating performance of the role. For the quantitative results, all the KPIs were achieved, including a return of investment of 311%, a reduction of polypharmacy by the de-prescribing of 54 drugs, the completion of clinical medication reviews in 100% of patients and repeat prescription reviews in 37% of patients and the provision of four medication training sessions for the IC coordinators. Discussion The findings support existing literature by qualitatively and quantitatively showing how the role functions and positive outcomes achieved by pharmacists in integrated primary care roles can be extended to social and health integrated care teams. Role functions highlighted include provision of pharmaceutical care to patients and training and education to staff. Positive outcomes delivered by the IC pharmacists include participant empowerment and bridge building between health and social care professionals.Furthermore, this study contributes to existing knowledge by identifying enablers and showing how they can optimise these outcomes. A key enabler was to fully embed the IC pharmacist role within a health and social MDT and co-locating the MDT at a GP surgery, instead of remote offices . Ensuring effective teamwork which is facilitated by a shared agenda, role understanding, respect, accessibility and visibility is another important enabler. A third enabler identified as crucial to sustain the role, is funding to transform the model to a fully embedded GP hub pharmacist and technician team, to ensure holistic staff capacity. Finally, the study highlighted that the role could be evaluated through stakeholder feedback as well as the utilization of admissions avoidance figures after adjusting for assumptions. Conclusion In line with action research, both action and additional knowledge were achieved. Action was achieved by ultimately transforming and expanding two roles to twelve teams of pharmacists and pharmacy technicians. Additional knowledge contributed include the views of key stakeholders across health and social carer, including patients, regarding what exactly the IC pharmacist role is, how it is delivered and could be adapted to increase sustainability, what outcomes it delivers and how they can be evaluated. Further research is required to inform which of the models would be best suited for the local population. Item Open AccessAdaptable Spatial Agent-Based Facility Location for Healthcare Coverage(De Montfort University, 2019-09) Olowofoyeku, OlukemiLack of access to healthcare is responsible for the world’s poverty, mortality and morbidity. Public healthcare facilities (HCFs) are expected to be located such that they can be reached within reasonable distances of the patients’ locations, while at the same time providing complete service coverage. However, complete service coverage is generally hampered by resource availability. Therefore, the Maximal Covering Location Problem (MCLP), seeks to locate HCFs such that as much population as possible is covered within a desired service distance. A consideration to the population not covered introduces a distance constraint that is greater than the desired service distance, beyond which no population should be. Existing approaches to the MCLP exogenously set the number of HCFs and the distance parameters, with further assumption of equal access to HCFs, infinite or equal capacity of HCFs and data availability. These models tackle the real-world system as static and do not address its intrinsic complexity that is characterised by unstable and diverse geographic, demographic and socio-economic factors that influence the spatial distribution of population and HCFs, resource management, the number of HCFs and proximity to HCFs. Static analysis incurs more expenditure in the analytical and decision-making process for every additional complexity and heterogeneity. This thesis is focused on addressing these limitations and simplifying the computationally intensive problems. A novel adaptable and flexible simulation-based meta-heuristic approach is employed to determine suitable locations for public HCFs by integrating Geographic Information Systems (GIS) with Agent-Based Models (ABM). Intelligent, adaptable and autonomous spatial and non-spatial agents are utilized to interact with each other and the geographic environment, while taking independent decisions governed by spatial rules, such as •containment, •adjacency, •proximity and •connectivity. Three concepts are introduced: assess the coverage of existing HCFs using travel-time along the road network and determine the different average values of the service distance; endogenously determine the number and suitable locations of HCFs by integrating capacity and locational suitability constraints for maximizing coverage within the prevailing service distance; endogenously determine the distance constraint as the maximum distance between the population not covered within the desired service distance and its closest facility. The models’ validations on existing algorithms produce comparable and better results. With confirmed transferability, the thesis is applied to Lagos State, Nigeria in a disaggregated analysis that reflects spatial heterogeneity, to provide improved service coverage for healthcare. The assessment of the existing health service coverage and spatial distribution reveals disparate accessibility and insufficiency of the HCFs whose locations do not factor in the spatial distribution of the population. Through the application of the simulation-based approach, a cost-effective complete health service coverage is achieved with new HCFs. The spatial pattern and autocorrelation analysis reveal the influence of population distribution and geographic phenomenon on HCF location. The relationship of selected HCFs with other spatial features indicates agents’ compliant with spatial association. This approach proves to be a better alternative in resource constrained systems. The adaptability and flexibility meet the global health coverage agenda, the desires of the decision maker and the population, in the support for public health service coverage. In addition, a general theory of the system for a better-informed decision and analytical knowledge is obtained.